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Gallic acid for COVID-19

Gallic acid has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Rahman et al., In silico investigation and potential therapeutic approaches of natural products for COVID-19: Computer-aided drug design perspective, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.929430
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a substantial number of deaths around the world, making it a serious and pressing public health hazard. Phytochemicals could thus provide a rich source of potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. The absence of approved treatments or vaccinations continues to be an issue, forcing the creation of new medicines. Computer-aided drug design has helped to speed up the drug research and development process by decreasing costs and time. Natural compounds like terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and flavonoid derivatives have a perfect impact against viral replication and facilitate future studies in novel drug discovery. This would be more effective if collaboration took place between governments, researchers, clinicians, and traditional medicine practitioners’ safe and effective therapeutic research. Through a computational approach, this study aims to contribute to the development of effective treatment methods by examining the mechanisms relating to the binding and subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The in silico method has also been employed to determine the most effective drug among the mentioned compound and their aquatic, nonaquatic, and pharmacokinetics’ data have been analyzed. The highest binding energy has been reported -11.4 kcal/mol against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (7MBG) in L05. Besides, all the ligands are non-carcinogenic, excluding L04, and have good water solubility and no AMES toxicity. The discovery of preclinical drug candidate molecules and the structural elucidation of pharmacological therapeutic targets have expedited both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. This review article will assist physicians and researchers in realizing the enormous potential of computer-aided drug design in the design and discovery of therapeutic molecules, and hence in the treatment of deadly diseases.
Azeem et al., Virtual screening of phytochemicals by targeting multiple proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies, International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, doi:10.1177/03946320221142793
Objective Medicinal herbs are being investigated for medicationhg development against SARS-CoV-2 as a rich source of bioactive chemicals. One of the finest approaches for finding therapeutically effective drug molecules in real time is virtual screening scheme such as molecular docking in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. These virtual techniques provide an ample opportunity for the screening of plausible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 different target proteins from a comprehensive and extensive phytochemical library. The study was designed to identify potential phytochemicals by virtual screening against different receptor proteins. Methods In the current study, a library of plant secondary metabolites was created by manually curating 120 phytochemicals known to have antimicrobial as well as antiviral properties. In the current study, different potential phytochemicals were identified by virtual screening against various selected receptor proteins (i.e., viral main proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), ADP ribose phosphatase, nonstructural proteins NSP7, NSP8, and NSP9) which are key proteins responsible for transcription, replication and maturation of SARS-CoV-2 in the host. Top three phytochemicals were selected against each viral receptor protein based on their best S-scores, RMSD values, molecular interactions, binding patterns and drug-likeness properties. Results The results of molecular docking study revealed that phytochemicals (i.e., baicalin, betaxanthin, epigallocatechin, fomecin A, gallic acid, hortensin, ichangin, kaempferol, limonoic acid, myricetin hexaacetat, pedalitin, quercetin, quercitrin, and silvestrol) have strong antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the reported preeminent reliable phytochemicals also revealed toxicity by no means during the evaluation through ADMET profiling. Moreover, the MD simulation study also exhibited thermal stability and stable binding affinity of the pedalitin with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV-2 main protease which suggests appreciable efficacy of the lead optimization. Conclusion The biological activity and pharmacologically distinguishing characteristics of these lead compounds also satisfied as repurposing antiviral drug contenders and are worth substantial evaluation in the biological laboratory for the recommendation of being plausible antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
Aati et al., Garcinia cambogia Phenolics as Potent Anti-COVID-19 Agents: Phytochemical Profiling, Biological Activities, and Molecular Docking, Plants, doi:10.3390/plants11192521
COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and became a pandemic in a critically short time. Phenolic secondary metabolites attracted much attention from the pharmaceutical industries for their easily accessible natural sources and proven antiviral activity. In our mission, a metabolomics study of the Garcinia cambogia Roxb. fruit rind was performed using LC-HRESIMS to investigate its chemical profile, especially the polar aspects, followed by a detailed phytochemical analysis, which led to the isolation of eight known compounds. Using spectrometric techniques, the isolated compounds were identified as quercetin, amentoflavone, vitexin, rutin, naringin, catechin, p-coumaric, and gallic acids. The antiviral activities of the isolated compounds were investigated using two assays; the 3CL-Mpro enzyme showed that naringin had a potent effect with IC50 16.62 μg/mL, followed by catechin and gallic acid (IC50 26.2, 30.35 μg/mL, respectively), while the direct antiviral inhibition effect of naringin confirmed the potency with an EC50 of 0.0169 μM. To show the molecular interaction, in situ molecular docking was carried out using a COVID-19 protease enzyme. Both biological effects and docking studies showed the hydrophobic interactions with Gln 189 or Glu 166, per the predicated binding pose of the isolated naringin.
Youn et al., Robust therapeutic effects on COVID-19 of novel small molecules: Alleviation of SARS-CoV-2 S protein induction of ACE2/TMPRSS2, NOX2/ROS, and MCP-1, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.3389/fcvm.2022.957340
While new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) constantly emerge to prolong the pandemic of COVID-19, robust and safe therapeutics are in urgent need. During the previous and ongoing fight against the pandemic in China, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has proven to be markedly effective in treating COVID-19. Among active ingredients of TCM recipes, small molecules such as quercetin, glabridin, gallic acid, and chrysoeriol have been predicted to target viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via system pharmacology/molecular docking/visualization analyses. Of note, endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress and inflammation represents a critical mediator of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ injuries in patients with COVID-19. Hence, in the present study, we examined whether quercetin, glabridin, gallic acide and chrysoeriol regulate viral receptors of ACE2 and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), redox modulator NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2), and inflammatory protein of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in endothelial cells to mediate therapeutic protection against COVID-19. Indeed, quercetin, glabridin, gallic acide and chrysoeriol completely attenuated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein)-induced upregulation in ACE2 protein expression in endothelial cells. In addition, these small molecules abolished S protein upregulation of cleaved/active form of TMPRSS2, while native TMPRSS2 was not significantly regulated. Moreover, these small molecules completely abrogated S protein-induced upregulation in NOX2 protein expression, which resulted in alleviated superoxide production, confirming their preventive efficacies against S protein-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells. In addition, treatment with these small molecules abolished S protein induction of MCP-1 expression. Collectively, our findings for the first time demonstrate that these novel small molecules may be used as novel and robust therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with COVID-19, via effective attenuation of S protein induction of endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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