Effect of Bamlanivimab as Monotherapy or in Combination With Etesevimab on Viral Load in Patients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19
MD, PhD Robert L Gottlieb, MD Ajay Nirula, Peter Chen, MD Joseph Boscia, MD Barry Heller, MD Jason Morris, MS Gregory Huhn, MD Jose Cardona, MD Bharat Mocherla, MD Valentina Stosor, MD Imad Shawa, MD Princy Kumar, PhD Andrew C Adams, BS Jacob Van Naarden, PhD; Kenneth L Custer, MS Michael Durante, MD Gerard Oakley, MD, PhD Andrew E Schade, PhD; Timothy R Holzer, PhD Philip J Ebert, PhD Richard E Higgs, PhD Nicole L Kallewaard, PharmD Janelle Sabo, MD Dipak R Patel, PhD Paul Klekotka, PhD Lei Shen, PhD; Daniel M Skovronsky
IMPORTANCE Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread rapidly worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies are a potential treatment for COVID-19. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of bamlanivimab monotherapy and combination therapy with bamlanivimab and etesevimab on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load in mild to moderate COVID-19.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The BLAZE-1 study is a randomized phase 2/3 trial at 49 US centers including ambulatory patients (N = 613) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and had 1 or more mild to moderate symptoms. Patients who received bamlanivimab monotherapy or placebo were enrolled first (June 17-August 21, 2020) followed by patients who received bamlanivimab and etesevimab or placebo (August 22-September 3). These are the final analyses and represent findings through October 6, 2020. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive a single infusion of bamlanivimab (700 mg [n = 101], 2800 mg [n = 107], or 7000 mg [n = 101]), the combination treatment (2800 mg of bamlanivimab and 2800 mg of etesevimab [n = 112]), or placebo (n = 156). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was change in SARS-CoV-2 log viral load at day 11 (±4 days). Nine prespecified secondary outcome measures were evaluated with comparisons between each treatment group and placebo, and included 3 other measures of viral load, 5 on symptoms, and 1 measure of clinical outcome (the proportion of patients with a COVID-19-related hospitalization, an emergency department [ED] visit, or death at day 29). RESULTS Among the 577 patients who were randomized and received an infusion (mean age, 44.7 [SD, 15.7] years; 315 [54.6%] women), 533 (92.4%) completed the efficacy evaluation period (day 29). The change in log viral load from baseline at day 11 was -3.72 for 700 mg, -4.08 for 2800 mg, -3.49for7000mg,-4.37forcombinationtreatment,and-3.80forplacebo.Comparedwithplacebo, the differences in the change in log viral load at day 11 were 0.09 (95% CI, -0.35 to 0.52; P = .69)for 700 mg, -0.27 (95% CI, -0.71 to 0.16; P = .21) for 2800 mg, 0.31 (95% CI, -0.13 to 0.76; P = .16) for 7000 mg, and -0.57 (95% CI, -1.00 to -0.14; P = .01) for combination treatment. Among the secondary outcome measures, differences between each treatment group vs the placebo group werestatisticallysignificantfor10of84endpoints.TheproportionofpatientswithCOVID-19-related hospitalizationsorEDvisitswas5.8%(9events)forplacebo,1.0%(1event)for700mg,1.9%(2events) for 2800 mg, 2.0% (2 events) for 7000 mg, and 0.9% (1 event) for combination treatment. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions were reported in 9 patients (6 bamlanivimab, 2 combination treatment, and 1 placebo). No deaths occurred during the study treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among nonhospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 illness, treatment with bamlanivimab and etesevimab, compared with placebo, was associated with a statistically significant..
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