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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case 25% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D  González-Estevez et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 40 patients in Mexico Fewer symptomatic cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.036) González-Estevez et al., Int. J. Envir.., Jul 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Association of Food Intake Quality with Vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 Positive Patients from Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study

González-Estevez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18147266
Jul 2021  
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Retrospective 40 COVID+ patients in Mexico, showing higher risk of symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. Higher food intake quality and intense physical activity were associated with vitamin D sufficiency. Insufficient intake of several micronutrients was common.
This is the 78th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
This study includes sunlight and vitamin D.
risk of symptomatic case, 25.0% lower, RR 0.75, p = 0.04, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 6 of 8 (75.0%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 32 of 32 (100.0%), NNT 4.0.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
González-Estevez et al., 7 Jul 2021, retrospective, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Association of Food Intake Quality with Vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 Positive Patients from Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study
Guillermo González-Estevez, Francisco Javier Turrubiates-Hernández, Laura Elena Herrera-Jiménez, Gabriela Athziri Sánchez-Zuno, Melva Guadalupe Herrera-Godina, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18147266
One of the micronutrients that has attracted the most attention in relation to COVID-19 is vitamin D. Although several factors affect its sufficiency; it has been argued that an optimal diet can ensure the intake of micronutrients with effects on immune response. Therefore, in this work we aimed to evaluate the food intake quality of SARS-CoV-2 positive Mexican patients and some of the common factors related to vitamin D deficiency. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Serum samples and clinical parameters were collected. Micronutrient intake and food intake quality were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall and the Mini-ECCA v.2, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the sample had a healthy food intake. The median 25(OH)D concentration was 22.7 ng/mL. A considerable insufficient intake of micronutrients with immunomodulatory effects such as vitamin D (p < 0.0001), vitamin E (p < 0.0001), and zinc (p < 0.0001) was shown. Patients with 25(OH)D sufficiency, defined as a concentration >30 ng/mL, had better food intake quality (p = 0.02) and an intense physical activity (p = 0.03). In conclusion, a better level of food intake quality and intense physical activity are associated with 25(OH)D sufficiency in SARS-CoV-2 positive Mexican patients.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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