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Clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality: a single-network, retrospective cohort study from Pennsylvania state

Gadhiya et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042549
Apr 2021  
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Mortality -41% Improvement Relative Risk Zinc for COVID-19  Gadhiya et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with zinc beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 283 patients in the USA Higher mortality with zinc (not stat. sig., p=0.33) c19early.org Gadhiya et al., BMJ Open, April 2021 Favorszinc Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 283 patients in the USA showing higher mortality with all treatments (not statistically significant). Confounding by indication is likely. In the supplementary appendix, authors note that the treatments were usually given for patients that required oxygen therapy. Oxygen therapy and ICU admission (possibly, the paper includes ICU admission for model 2 in some places but not others) were the only variables indicating severity used in adjustments.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Study covers vitamin C, zinc, and HCQ.
risk of death, 40.9% higher, RR 1.41, p = 0.33, treatment 21 of 54 (38.9%), control 34 of 229 (14.8%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gadhiya et al., 8 Apr 2021, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality: a single-network, retrospective cohort study from Pennsylvania state
Kinjal P Gadhiya, Dr Panupong Hansrivijit, Mounika Gangireddy, John D Goldman
BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042549
Objective COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 with the highest burden in the USA. Data on clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in US population are limited. Thus, we aim to determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors for in-hospital mortality from COVID-19. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Single-network hospitals in Pennsylvania state. Participants Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hospitalised from 1 March to 31 May 2020. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results Of 283 patients, 19.4% were non-survivors. The mean age of all patients was 64.1±15.9 years. 56.2% were male and 50.2% were white. Several factors were identified from our adjusted multivariate analyses to be associated with in-hospital mortality: increasing age (per 1-year increment; OR 1.07 (1.045 to 1.105)), hypoxia (oxygen saturation <95%; OR 4.630 (1.934 to 1.111)), opacity/infiltrate on imaging (OR 3.077 (1.276 to 7.407)), leucocytosis (white blood cell >10 109/µL ; OR 2.732 (1.412 to 5.263)), ferritin >336 ng/mL (OR 4.016 (1.195 to 13.514)), lactate dehydrogenase >200 U/L (OR 7.752 (1.639 to 37.037)), procalcitonin >0.25 ng/ mL (OR 2.404 (1.011 to 5.714)), troponin I >0.03 ng/ mL (OR 2.242 (1.080 to 4.673)), need for advanced oxygen support other than simple nasal cannula (OR 4.608-13.889 (2.053 to 31.250)), intensive care unit admission/transfer (OR 13.699 (6.135 to 30.303)), renal replacement therapy (OR 21.277 (5.025 to 90.909)), need for vasopressor (OR 22.222 (9.434 to 52.632)), ARDS (OR 23.810 (10.204 to 55.556)), respiratory acidosis (OR 7.042 (2.915 to 16.949)), and AKI (OR 3.571 (1.715 to 7.407)). When critically ill patients were analysed independently, increasing Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (OR 1.544 (1.168 to 2.039)), AKI (OR 2.128 (1.111 to 6.667)) and ARDS (OR 6.410 (2.237 to 18.182)) were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion We reported the characteristics of ethnically diverse, hospitalised patients with COVID-19 from Pennsylvania state.
Competing interests None declared. Patient consent for publication Not required. Ethics approval The protocol of this study has been approved by the UPMC Pinnacle Institutional Review Board and UPMC Pinnacle Ethics Committee (#20E024). Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. Raw data are available upon reasonable request. Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise. Open access This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is..
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Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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