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Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a retrospective single-centre service evaluation

Eden et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270
Aug 2021  
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Mortality, 25nmol/L 64% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, 50nmol/L 93% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Eden et al.  ICU PATIENTS Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 51 patients in the United Kingdom Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.097) c19early.org Eden et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention.., Aug 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 72 ICU patients in the UK, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not reaching statistical significance.
This is the 86th of 198 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 361,397 vigintillion).
risk of death, 63.9% lower, RR 0.36, p = 0.10, high D levels (≥25nmol/L) 3 of 26 (11.5%), low D levels (<25nmol/L) 8 of 25 (32.0%), NNT 4.9.
risk of death, 92.9% lower, RR 0.07, p = 0.18, high D levels (≥50nmol/L) 0 of 8 (0.0%), low D levels (<50nmol/L) 11 of 43 (25.6%), NNT 3.9, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Eden et al., 5 Aug 2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 5 authors. Contact: timothy.eden@nhs.net, @TimothyEdenRD, @ShaneMacZ.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a retrospective single-centre service evaluation
Dr Timothy Eden, Shane Mcauliffe, Dominic Crocombe, Jonathan Neville, Sumantra Ray
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270
D deficiency may also associate with poorer outcomes and mortality, supporting a possible role of vitamin D in immune function specific to pulmonary inflammation and COVID-19 pathophysiology. There are plausible associations between raised BMI, glycaemic control, vitamin D status and poor prognosis, as seen in wider studies; however, in this service evaluation audit during the first wave of the pandemic in the UK, with a limited data set available for this analysis, the associations did not reach statistical significance. Further research is needed into specific nutritional markers influencing critical care admissions with COVID-19. ► This snapshot audit in a London ICU from the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic adds to the body of evidence associating overweight/obesity as a risk factor of disease severity and mortality in COVID-19. ► Further data suggesting baseline vitamin D status may influence severity of COVID-19 as higher mortality was observed in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L). ► This highlights baseline nutritional parameters that are easily obtainable in the critical care setting and suggests additional nutritional markers worthy of further research.
Contributors TE, JN and SR planned the above service evaluation and determined the data collection. TE and JN collected the relevant data and JN and SR provided the statistical analysis. TE, SM and DC contributed to the report writing and discussion of this service evaluation. SR supervised the undertaking of the work and contributed to the overall revisions prior to submission by TE. Competing interests None declared. Patient consent for publication Not required. Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed by Marcello Scopazzini, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK. Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplemental information. All relevant data and statistical analyses have been included within the submission. For further information and additional data, please contact the first author Timothy Eden ( timothy. eden@ nhs. net). Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology,..
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Nutrition is ' 'important to immune function and influences metabolic risk factors such as obesity and ' 'glycaemic control, as well as recovery from acute illnesses. Poor nutritional status is ' 'associated with worse outcomes in ARDS and viral infections, yet limited research has ' 'assessed pre-morbid nutritional status and outcomes in patients critically unwell with ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p><jats:sec><jats:title>Objectives</jats:title><jats:p>Investigate the effect ' 'of body mass index (BMI), glycaemic control and vitamin D status on outcomes in adult ' 'patients with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit ' '(ICU).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Retrospective ' 'review of all patients admitted to a central London ICU between March and May 2020 with ' 'confirmed COVID-19. Electronic patient records data were analysed for patient demographics; ' 'comorbidities; admission BMI; and serum vitamin D, zinc, selenium and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ' 'concentrations. Serum vitamin D and HbA1c were measured on admission, or within 1 month of ' 'admission to ICU. Primary outcome of interest was mortality. Secondary outcomes included time ' 'intubated, ICU stay duration and ICU-related ' 'morbidity.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Seventy-two ' 'patients; 54 (75%) men, mean age 57.1 (±9.8) years, were included. Overall, mortality was 24 ' '(33%). No significant association with mortality was observed across BMI categories. In the ' 'survival arm admission, HbA1c (mmol/mol) was lower, 50.2 vs 60.8, but this was not ' 'statistically significant. Vitamin D status did not significantly associate with mortality ' '(p=0.131). However, 32% of patients with low vitamin D (&lt;25 IU/L) died, compared with 13% ' 'of patients with vitamin D levels &gt;26 IU/L. Serum zinc and selenium, and vitamin ' 'B<jats:sub>12</jats:sub> and folate levels were measured in 46% and 26% of patients, ' 'respectively.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Discussion/conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>Increased ' 'adiposity and deranged glucose homeostasis may potentially increase risk of COVID-19 ' 'infection and severity, possibly relating to impaired lung and metabolic function, increased ' 'proinflammatory and prothrombotic mechanisms. Vitamin D deficiency may also associate with ' 'poorer outcomes and mortality, supporting a possible role of vitamin D in immune function ' 'specific to pulmonary inflammation and COVID-19 pathophysiology. There are plausible ' 'associations between raised BMI, glycaemic control, vitamin D status and poor prognosis, as ' 'seen in wider studies; however, in this service evaluation audit during the first wave of the ' 'pandemic in the UK, with a limited data set available for this analysis, the associations did ' 'not reach statistical significance. Further research is needed into specific nutritional ' 'markers influencing critical care admissions with COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 6]], 'date-time': '2021-08-06T16:07:21Z', 'timestamp': 1628266041000}, 'page': '416-424', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/crossmarkpolicy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 5, 'title': 'Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a ' 'retrospective single-centre service evaluation', 'prefix': '10.1136', 'volume': '4', 'author': [ {'given': 'Timothy', 'family': 'Eden', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7166-4299', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Shane', 'family': 'McAuliffe', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Dominic', 'family': 'Crocombe', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Jonathan', 'family': 'Neville', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Sumantra', 'family': 'Ray', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '239', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 6]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.1', 'unstructured': 'Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) . 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Vitamin D status of adults in the ' 'community, in outpatient clinics, in hospital, and in nursing homes in ' 'the West of Ireland. Journals Gerontol Ser A [Internet] 2020 ' 'https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31942614/', 'DOI': '10.1093/gerona/glaa010'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '67', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000096', 'article-title': 'Avoidance of vitamin D deficiency to slow the COVID-19 pandemic', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Kohlmeier', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Nutr Prev Health'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '276', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13054-018-2185-8', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation in critical illness-the known ' 'knowns and known unknowns', 'volume': '22', 'author': 'Nair', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Crit Care'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1530/EC-18-0184'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.181.10.7090'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '733', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26360', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D insufficiency as a potential culprit in critical COVID-19 ' 'patients', 'volume': '93', 'author': 'Munshi', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '765', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with ' 'acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19', 'volume': '44', 'author': 'Carpagnano', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Endocrinol Invest'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751'}, { 'key': '2021123006401107000_4.2.416.45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1380', 'DOI': '10.1002/jpen.2002', 'article-title': 'Nutrition and micronutrient therapy in critical illness should be ' 'individualized', 'volume': '44', 'author': 'Berger', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr'}], 'container-title': 'BMJ Nutrition, Prevention &amp; Health', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://syndication.highwire.org/content/doi/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 30]], 'date-time': '2021-12-30T14:42:06Z', 'timestamp': 1640875326000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://nutrition.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 6]]}, 'references-count': 45, 'journal-issue': { 'issue': '2', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 29]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2516-5542'], 'subject': ['Nutrition and Dietetics', 'Medicine (miscellaneous)', 'Health (social science)'], 'container-title-short': 'BMJNPH', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 6]]}}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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