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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 11% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 42% Severe case 40% Vitamin D for COVID-19  di Filippo et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 88 patients in Italy Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.037) c19early.org di Filippo et al., The J. Clinical End.., Aug 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severity

di Filippo et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab599
Aug 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 88 patients in Italy, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with severe cases, blood glucose, and BMI.
This is the 89th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 10.7% lower, RR 0.89, p = 1.00, high D levels 5 of 28 (17.9%), low D levels 12 of 60 (20.0%), NNT 47, >20ng/mL.
risk of ICU admission, 41.6% lower, RR 0.58, p = 0.22, high D levels 6 of 28 (21.4%), low D levels 22 of 60 (36.7%), NNT 6.6, >20ng/mL.
risk of severe case, 39.6% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.04, high D levels 11 of 28 (39.3%), low D levels 39 of 60 (65.0%), NNT 3.9, >20ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
di Filippo et al., 12 Aug 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severity
Luigi Di Filippo, MD Agnese Allora, MD Mauro Doga, MD Anna Maria Formenti, MD Massimo Locatelli, MD Patrizia Rovere Querini, Professor Stefano Frara, MD Andrea Giustina, Prof Andrea Giustina
doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab599/6349205
Context: High prevalence of Vitamin-D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients was reported and hypothesized to increase COVID-19 severity likely due to its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, clear associations between hypovitaminosis-D and fat body-mass excess and diabetes, factors associated with COVID-19 severity, have been widely recognized. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate in COVID-19 patients the relationship between VD levels and inflammatory response, BMI, blood glucose and disease severity. Design: Patients admitted to San Raffaele-Hospital for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing VD-metabolism. 25(OH)VD levels, plasma glucose levels, BMI and inflammatory parameters were evaluated at admission. Results: A total of 88 patients were included. Median VD level was 16.3 ng/mL and VDdeficiency was found in 68.2% of patients. VD-deficiency was found more frequently in male patients and in those affected by severe COVID-19. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and negative correlations between VD and plasma glucose, BMI, Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio, CRP and IL-6.
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{ 'DOI': '10.1210/clinem/dgab599', 'ISSN': ['0021-972X', '1945-7197'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab599', 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Context</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>A high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients ' 'has been reported and hypothesized to increase COVID-19 severity likely because of its ' 'negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, clear associations between ' 'hypovitaminosis D and fat body mass excess and diabetes, factors associated with COVID-19 ' 'severity, have been widely recognized.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Objective</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>The aim of this study was to evaluate in COVID-19 patients the ' 'relationship between VD levels and inflammatory response, body mass index (BMI), blood ' 'glucose (GLU), and disease severity.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Patients admitted to San Raffaele-Hospital for COVID-19 were ' 'enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing VD ' 'metabolism. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels, plasma GLU levels, BMI, and inflammatory parameters ' 'were evaluated at admission.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>A total of 88 patients were included. Median VD level was 16.3 ' 'ng/mL and VD deficiency was found in 68.2% of patients. VD deficiency was found more ' 'frequently in male patients and in those affected by severe COVID-19. Regression analyses ' 'showed a positive correlation between VD and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and negative correlations ' 'between VD and plasma GLU, BMI, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and ' 'interleukin 6. Patients with both hypovitaminosis D and diabetes mellitus, as well those with ' 'hypovitaminosis D and overweight, were more frequently affected by a severe disease with ' 'worse inflammatory response and respiratory parameters, compared to those without or just one ' 'of these conditions.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>We showed, for the first-time, a strict association of VD levels ' 'with blood GLU and BMI in COVID-19 patients. VD deficiency might be a novel common ' 'pathophysiological mechanism involved in the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia and ' 'adiposity on disease severity.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San ' 'Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'family': 'di Filippo', 'given': 'Luigi', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San ' 'Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'family': 'Allora', 'given': 'Agnese', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San ' 'Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'family': 'Doga', 'given': 'Mauro', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San ' 'Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'family': 'Formenti', 'given': 'Anna Maria', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Laboratory Medicine Service, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, ' 'Italy'}], 'family': 'Locatelli', 'given': 'Massimo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2615-3649', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and Division of ' 'Transplantation, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San ' 'Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Rovere Querini', 'given': 'Patrizia', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San ' 'Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'family': 'Frara', 'given': 'Stefano', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6783-3398', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San ' 'Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Giustina', 'given': 'Andrea', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp; 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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