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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ ICU admission 73% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D  Diaz-Curiel et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 1,231 patients in Spain Lower ICU admission with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.016) c19early.org Diaz-Curiel et al., J. Steroid Biochem.., Jun 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patients

Diaz-Curiel et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928
Jun 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 118 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 1,549 patients in Spain showing that the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in admitted patients compared to the overall Spanish population, and that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ICU admission amongst admitted patients. Adjusted vitamin D levels were lower in deceased patients, but statistical significance was not reached (authors provide only average levels, they do not provide mortality analysis based on deficiency).
This is the 71st of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of ICU admission, 73.2% lower, RR 0.27, p = 0.02, high D levels 3 of 214 (1.4%), low D levels 91 of 1,017 (8.9%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >30ng/mL vs. <20ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Diaz-Curiel et al., 6 Jun 2021, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patients
Manuel Diaz-Curiel, Alfonso Cabello, Rosa Arboiro-Pinel, Jose Luis Mansur, Sarah Heili-Frades, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernandez, Antonio Herrero-González, Marjorie Andrade-Poveda
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 is correlated with an increased risk of hospital admission and the need for critical care. We found no clear relationship between vitamin D levels and mortality.
Authorship All listed authors meet the ICMJE criteria. We attest that all authors contributed significantly to the creation of this manuscript, each having fulfilled criteria as established by the ICMJE. We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors. We confirm that the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all named authors. All authors approved the final content of the manuscript. MDC takes responsibility for the integrity of the data analysis. Authors roles Declaration of Competing Interest No conflict of interest exists. We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.
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