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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 11% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Charla et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 179 patients in India (April 2020 - April 2021) No significant difference in mortality Charla et al., Research Square, July 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Is suboptimal circulating level of vitamin D a risk factor for the poor prognosis of COVID-19? – A comparison of first and second waves in India

Charla et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Jul 2022  
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Retrospective 179 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India, showing no significant difference in mortality with vitamin D deficiency in unadjusted results. Patients with deficiency were younger.
This is the 140th of 186 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 179 vigintillion). This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups.
risk of death, 10.7% lower, RR 0.89, p = 0.74, high D levels (≥20ng/ml) 24 of 91 (26.4%), low D levels (<20ng/ml) 26 of 88 (29.5%), NNT 32.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Charla et al., 13 Jul 2022, retrospective, India, preprint, 8 authors, study period 1 April, 2020 - 30 April, 2021.
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Is suboptimal circulating level of vitamin D a risk factor for the poor prognosis of COVID- 19? – A comparison of first and second waves in India
Yashika Charla, Seema Bhagava, Shyamala A Bembey, S P Byotra, Atul Kakar, Atul Gogia, Parul Chugh, Sangeeta Choudhury
Background -Severe acute respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects every organ system, especially the lungs. Vitamin D has been shown to modulate both infections and autoimmune diseases. It maintains the balance between angiotensin-1 and angiotensin II, thereby preventing lung tissue damage. Hence arises the question -can adequate circulating vitamin D prevent or modulate SARS-CoV-2 infection? In the present study, we attempted to nd the answer to this question in the Indian population. Methodology -The study duration was April 1, 2020 to April 30, 2021, including only those patients whose vitamin D levels were estimated. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare age, hospital stay, and total vitamin D levels between the two waves. The gender difference, vitamin D status, pre-existing comorbidities, COVID-19 severity, and mortality were calculated using the chi-square test. Results -On curating the data, vitamin D levels were found to be estimated in 179 COVID-19 positive patients. In the rst wave, 48.2% of the patients were de cient in vitamin D levels, yet no statistical association was observed for patients' demographics (age, sex, and comorbidities), COVID-19 severity, and mortality. Similar results were observed in the second wave. The correlation coe cient of IL-6 (r=-0.08), CRP (r = 0.033), and ferritin (r = 0.027) was not signi cantly associated with vitamin D levels. Conclusion -The Indian population is known to be de cient in vitamin D, yet this study showed an absence of vitamin D correlation with severity, morbidity or mortality of COVID-19. Further research into the immunemodulatory effect of vitamin D on disease susceptibility and progression in COVID-19 would be bene cial.
the immune-modulatory effect of vit D in susceptibility and course of disease in COVID-19 would be pertinent as the Indian population is known to have hypovitaminosis D. Declarations Author contributions: All authors contributed and approved the nal manuscript. YC collated the data, reviewed the literature, and drafted the manuscript; SB conceptualized, guided, edited, and proofread; SAB aided in the collation of data and proofreading; SPB advised and suggested the result outcomes, proofread the manuscript; AK and AG extracted demographic and clinical details; PC performed statistical analyses; SC conceptualized, guided, analyzed the data, framed the questions, edited the manuscript and proofread. Con ict of interest The authors declare that they do not have any con ict of interest.
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