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Cross-regulation of antibody responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and commensal microbiota via molecular mimicry

Bondareva et al., Cell Host & Microbe, doi:10.1016/j.chom.2023.10.007
Nov 2023  
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Probiotics for COVID-19
18th treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2021
 
*, now with p = 0.0000013 from 26 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of the role of oral microbiota, particularly Streptococcus salivarius, in enhancing immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Authors show that several commensal bacteria express proteins that mimic the receptor binding domain of the spike protein and are recognized by spike-specific neutralizing antibodies. Oral supplementation of mice with S. salivarius induced cross-reactive antibodies against the spike protein and supplementation in humans increased the levels of salivary anti-spike IgG antibodies. Overall, the study provides evidence that molecular mimicry between the spike protein and proteins from commensal oral bacteria can enhance mucosal antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2.
The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific.
Bondareva et al., 8 Nov 2023, Germany, peer-reviewed, 40 authors. Contact: kruglov@drfz.de (corresponding author), kruglov@drfz.de (corresponding author).
This PaperProbioticsAll
Cross-regulation of antibody responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and commensal microbiota via molecular mimicry
Marina Bondareva, Pawel Durek, ..., Lisa Budzinski, Pawel Durek, Mario Witkowski, Stefan Angermair, Justus Ninnemann, Jakob Kreye, Philine Letz, Marta Ferreira-Gomes, Iaroslav Semin, Gabriela Maria Guerra, S Momsen Reincke, Elisa Sánchez-Sendin, Selin Yilmaz, Toni Sempert, Gitta Anne Heinz, Caroline Tizian, Martin Raftery, Günther Schönrich, Daria Matyushkina, Ivan V Smirnov, Vadim M Govorun, Eva Schrezenmeier, Anna-Luisa Stefanski, Thomas Dörner, Silvia Zocche, Edoardo Viviano, Nele Klement, Katharina Johanna Sehmsdorf, Alexander Lunin, Hyun-Dong Chang, Marina Drutskaya, Liubov Kozlovskaya, Sascha Treskatsch, Andreas Radbruch, Andreas Diefenbach, Harald Prüss, Philipp Enghard, Mir-Farzin Mashreghi, Andrey A Kruglov
Cell Host & Microbe, doi:10.1016/j.chom.2023.10.007
In brief Bondareva et al. show that commensal bacteria, including Streptococcus salivarius, trigger cross-reactive anti-Spike antibodies capable of SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibition. Streptococcus salivarius abundance correlates with salivary anti-Spike antibodies early after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Streptococcus salivarius supplementation enhances salivary anti-Spike antibodies in vaccinees.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Conceptualization, A.A.K. and M.-F.M.; methodology, A.A.K., M.-F.M., P.D., L.K., M.D., G.S., M.B., S.A., I.V.S., and V.M.G.; software, P.D.; investigation, M.B., S.A., L.B., P.L., J.N., A.A.K., M.W., J.K., S.M.R., I.S., G.M.G., M.F.-G., E.S.-S., S.Y., T.S., G.A.H., C.T., M.R., D.M., I.V.S., M.D., L.K., and A.L.; resources, J.K., S.M.R., E.S.-S., H.P., E.S., A.-L.S., T.D., S.Z., E.V., N.K., K.J.S., S.T., A.D., and P.E.; writing -original draft, A.A.K., M.W., M.B., L.B., J.N., P.D., M.-F.M., and A.R.; writing -review & editing, M.W., M.B., L.B., J.N., J.K., M.F.-G., S.M.R., M.R., G.S., E.S., A.-L.S., T.D., H.-D.C., M.D., L.K., S.T., A.R., H.P., and P.E.; visualization, A.A.K., P.D., M.B., L.B., and J.N.; project administration, A.A.K., M.-F.M., L.K., P.E., S.T., A.R., A.D., and H.P.; funding acquisition, H.-D.C., A.R., M.-F.M., A.A.K., H.P., V.M.G., J.K., S.M.R., and E.S. DECLARATION OF INTERESTS Related to this work, Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ) has filed a patent application. RESOURCE AVAILABILITY Lead contact Further information and requests for resources and reagents should be directed to and will be fulfilled by the lead contact, Andrey Kruglov (kruglov@drfz.de). Materials availability Plasmids, cell lines and antibodies, bacterial strains generated during the study are available upon request to the lead contact. Data and code availability Supplementation of healthy individuals with probiotic bacteria Healthy volunteers..
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