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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 50% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 50% Hospitalization time 9% Sub-intensive hospitaliza.. 39% NIV time 58% High flow oxygen time 8% Sleep time 18% Delirium 33% Melatonin for COVID-19  Bologna et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with melatonin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 80 patients in Italy Lower need for oxygen therapy with melatonin (p<0.000001) Bologna et al., J. Clinical Medicine, Dec 2021 Favors melatonin Favors control

Efficacy of Prolonged-Release Melatonin 2 mg (PRM 2 mg) Prescribed for Insomnia in Hospitalized Patients for COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study

Bologna et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10245857
Dec 2021  
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Retrospective 40 hospitalized patients in Italy treated with melatonin and 40 control patients, showing improved sleep, reduced delirium, shorter hospitalization and oxygen times, and reduced ICU admission and mortality (not statistically significant).
risk of death, 50.0% lower, RR 0.50, p = 0.48, treatment 3 of 40 (7.5%), control 6 of 40 (15.0%), NNT 13.
risk of ICU admission, 50.0% lower, RR 0.50, p = 0.48, treatment 3 of 40 (7.5%), control 6 of 40 (15.0%), NNT 13.
hospitalization time, 8.7% lower, relative time 0.91, p = 0.05, treatment mean 31.3 (±6.8) n=40, control mean 34.3 (±6.9) n=40.
relative sub-intensive hospitalization time, 38.8% better, relative time 0.61, p < 0.001, treatment mean 12.3 (±3.0) n=40, control mean 20.1 (±6.1) n=40.
relative NIV time, 58.4% better, relative time 0.42, p < 0.001, treatment mean 5.2 (±3.0) n=40, control mean 12.5 (±4.2) n=40.
relative high flow oxygen time, 7.8% better, relative time 0.92, p = 0.35, treatment mean 7.1 (±2.5) n=40, control mean 7.7 (±3.2) n=40.
relative sleep time, 18.2% better, RR 0.82, p < 0.001, treatment mean 5.5 (±0.8) n=40, control mean 4.5 (±1.2) n=40.
delirium, 33.3% lower, RR 0.67, p < 0.001, treatment mean 2.2 (±1.1) n=40, control mean 3.3 (±1.3) n=40.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Bologna et al., 14 Dec 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
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Efficacy of Prolonged-Release Melatonin 2 mg (PRM 2 mg) Prescribed for Insomnia in Hospitalized Patients for COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study
Carolina Bologna, Pasquale Madonna, Eduardo Pone
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10245857
Background: we have observed the effect of insomnia treatment in clinical and prognostic differences of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia in respiratory sub-intensive units that were administered a prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg (PRM 2 mg) therapy versus a group of patients out of therapy. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients on prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg (PRM 2 mg) therapy versus a control group of 40 patients out of therapy. Results: patients in the PRM 2 mg group had a shorter duration of therapy with non-invasive ventilation (5.2 ± 3.0 vs. 12.5 ± 4.2; p < 0.001), with a shorter stay in sub-intensive care (12.3 ± 3.2 vs. 20.1 ± 6.1; p < 0.001), and, therefore, a shorter overall duration of hospitalization (31.3 ± 6.8 vs. 34.3 ± 6.9 p = 0.03). In addition, a lower incidence of delirium was found (2.2 ± 1.1 vs. 3.3 ± 1.3; p < 0.001). Conclusions: A significant increase in sleep hours and a reduction in delirium episodes occurs in hospitalized insomniac patients treated with PRM 2 mg, compared to untreated patients. Based on these preliminary results, we can assume that there are benefits of prolonged-release melatonin 2 mg in COVID-19 therapy.
Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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