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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Recovery, day 10 100% Improvement Relative Risk Recovery, day 9 100% Recovery, day 8 100% Recovery, day 7 95% Recovery, day 6 76% Recovery, day 5 48% Recovery, day 4 6% Recovery, day 3 3% Viral clearance, day 10 98% Viral clearance, day 7 90% Viral clearance, day 4 16% Propolis  Tran et al.  EARLY TREATMENT  RCT Is early treatment with propolis + combined treatments beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 1,252 patients in Vietnam Improved recovery (p<0.0001) and viral clearance (p<0.0001) Tran et al., In Vivo, August 2023 Favors propolis Favors control

A Prospective Study of AFree Oral Spray as an Adjuvant Therapy for Mild and Moderate COVID-19 in Community Health Stations: Clinical Progression and Viral Clearance Outcomes

Tran et al., In Vivo, doi:10.21873/invivo.13313
Aug 2023  
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RCT 1,252 mild/moderate COVID-19 patients Vietnam, showing faster recovery and faster viral clearance with an oral spray containing zinc, propolis, xylitol, ginger, and DMSO. 5-10 times per day.
2 studies use direct respiratory tract administration Tran, Tran (B)
Targeted administration to the respiratory tract provides treatment directly to the typical source of initial SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, and allows for rapid onset of action, higher local drug concentration, and reduced systemic side effects.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: many combined treatments which may significantly contribute to the effect seen.
Study covers propolis and zinc.
risk of no recovery, 99.7% lower, RR 0.003, p < 0.001, treatment 0 of 626 (0.0%), control 143 of 626 (22.8%), NNT 4.4, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), day 10.
risk of no recovery, 99.7% lower, RR 0.003, p < 0.001, treatment 1 of 626 (0.2%), control 287 of 626 (45.8%), NNT 2.2, day 9.
risk of no recovery, 99.5% lower, RR 0.005, p < 0.001, treatment 2 of 626 (0.3%), control 410 of 626 (65.5%), NNT 1.5, day 8.
risk of no recovery, 95.3% lower, RR 0.05, p < 0.001, treatment 20 of 626 (3.2%), control 424 of 626 (67.7%), NNT 1.5, day 7.
risk of no recovery, 76.1% lower, RR 0.24, p < 0.001, treatment 103 of 626 (16.5%), control 431 of 626 (68.8%), NNT 1.9, day 6.
risk of no recovery, 47.7% lower, RR 0.52, p < 0.001, treatment 282 of 626 (45.0%), control 539 of 626 (86.1%), NNT 2.4, day 5.
risk of no recovery, 5.6% lower, RR 0.94, p = 0.001, treatment 557 of 626 (89.0%), control 590 of 626 (94.2%), NNT 19, day 4.
risk of no recovery, 2.8% lower, RR 0.97, p = 0.02, treatment 594 of 626 (94.9%), control 611 of 626 (97.6%), NNT 37, day 3.
risk of no viral clearance, 97.8% lower, RR 0.02, p < 0.001, treatment 7 of 626 (1.1%), control 316 of 626 (50.5%), NNT 2.0, day 10.
risk of no viral clearance, 90.0% lower, RR 0.10, p < 0.001, treatment 58 of 626 (9.3%), control 582 of 626 (93.0%), NNT 1.2, day 7.
risk of no viral clearance, 16.2% lower, RR 0.84, p < 0.001, treatment 518 of 626 (82.7%), control 618 of 626 (98.7%), NNT 6.3, day 4.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tran et al., 31 Aug 2023, Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, Vietnam, peer-reviewed, mean age 36.7, 7 authors, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with ginger, zinc, xylitol, and DMSO) - results of individual treatments may vary. Contact:
This PaperPropolisAll
Abstract: in vivo 37: 2155-2160 (2023) doi:10.21873/invivo.13313 A Prospective Study of AFree Oral Spray as an Adjuvant Therapy for Mild and Moderate COVID-19 in Community Health Stations: Clinical Progression and Viral Clearance Outcomes DUONG T. TRAN1,2, TRUONG N. PHAM1,3, NHUNG HT NGUYEN4, HAU D. TRAN5, HUY Q. HOANG6, BO HAN7 and BA X. HOANG7 119-8 Hospital, Ministry of Public Security, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Faculty of Medicine, Dai Nam University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Department of Experimental Surgery and Preclinical Study - University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hanoi National University, Hanoi, Vietnam; 4University of Medical Technology, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Hai Duong, Vietnam; 5National Children Hospital, Department of Oncology, Hanoi, Vietnam; 6Natural Health Medical Center, Lawndale, CA, U.S.A.; 7Nimni-Cordoba Tissue Engineering and Drug Discovery Lab, Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A. Abstract. Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AFree oral spray, in combination with Standard of Care, in treating mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. This was an open-label, single-blinded, and controlled randomized clinical trial. Patients and Methods: The study involved 1,252 patients, who were randomly assigned to either the control or study group, with 626 patients in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with Standard of Care recommended by the Ministry of Health of Vietnam, while patients in the study group received AFree oral spray in addition to Standard of Care for a period of 10 days. The clinical progression and outcomes of both groups were compared. Results: The results showed that the proportion of patients with clinical symptoms on the 5th, 7th and 10th Correspondence to: Ba X. Hoang, MD, Ph.D., Nimni-Cordoba Tissue Engineering and Drug Discovery Lab, Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, BMT-302, 1333 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA, U.S.A. Tel: +1 3234422242, e-mail: Key Words: COVID-19, Zinc, Iodide, dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, AFree, viral infection, SARS-COV-2. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC-ND) 4.0 international license ( days were significantly lower in the study group (45.05%, 3.19% and 0%, respectively) compared to the control group (86.10%, 67.73% and 22.84%, respectively). Additionally, the rate of Real-time PCR test positivity for COVID-19 was significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group on the 4th, 7th, and 10th days (82.75% vs. 98.72%, 9.27% vs. 92.97%, and 1.12% vs. 50.48%, respectively). Furthermore, no side effects or complications related to AFree oral spray were recorded in the study group. Conclusion: The use of AFree oral spray resulted in significant improvements in clinical symptoms, recovery time, and viral clearance in COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms. This therapy has been shown to be safe and can be used as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 as well as other respiratory viral infections. COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease that can cause a wide range of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild to severe. In the worst cases, it can lead to the development of respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, septic shock, and..
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