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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 42% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Tallon et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 116,370 patients in the USA Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (p<0.000001) c19early.org Tallon et al., Diabetes Research and C.., Nov 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Impact of diabetes status and related factors on COVID-19-associated hospitalization: A nationwide retrospective cohort study of 116,370 adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Tallon et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110156
Nov 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 116,370 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing higher risk of hospitalization with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.
This is the 150th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of hospitalization, 41.5% lower, OR 0.58, p < 0.001, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 113,143, low D levels (<30ng/mL) 3,227, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥30ng/mL), RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Tallon et al., 15 Nov 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 17 authors. Contact: erin.tallon@mail.missouri.edu.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Impact of diabetes status and related factors on COVID-19-associated hospitalization: A nationwide retrospective cohort study of 116,370 adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Erin M Tallon, Osagie Ebekozien, Janine Sanchez, Vincent S Staggs, Diana Ferro, Ryan Mcdonough, Carla Demeterco-Berggren, Sarit Polsky, Patricia Gomez, Neha Patel, Priya Prahalad, Ori Odugbesan, Priyanka Mathias, Joyce M Lee, Chelsey Smith, Chi-Ren Shyu, Mark A Clements
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110156
We examined diabetes status (no diabetes; type 1 diabetes [T1D]; type 2 diabetes [T2D]) and other demographic and clinical factors as correlates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related hospitalization. Further, we evaluated predictors of COVID-19-related hospitalization in T1D and T2D. Methods: We analyzed electronic health record data from the de-identified COVID-19 database (December 2019 through mid-September 2020; 87 US health systems). Logistic mixed models were used to examine predictors of hospitalization at index encounters associated with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: In 116,370 adults (>=18 years old) with COVID-19 (93,098 no diabetes; 802 T1D; 22,470 T2D), factors that independently increased risk for hospitalization included diabetes, male sex, public health insurance, decreased body mass index (BMI; <25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ), increased BMI (>25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ), vitamin D deficiency/ insufficiency, and Elixhauser comorbidity score. After further adjustment for concurrent hyperglycemia and acidosis in those with diabetes, hospitalization risk was substantially higher in T1D than T2D and in those with low vitamin D and elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Conclusions: The higher hospitalization risk in T1D versus T2D warrants further investigation. Modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, BMI, and elevated HbA1c may serve as prognostic indicators for COVID-19-related hospitalization in adults with diabetes.
responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. CRediT authorship contribution statement Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi. org/10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110156.
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