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c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchCasirivimab/imdevimabCasirivimab/i.. (more..)
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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization/ER 89% Improvement Relative Risk Symp. case 81% Recovery time 62% Time to viral- 69% Casirivimab/i..  O'Brien et al.  Prophylaxis  DB RCT Is prophylaxis with casirivimab/imdevimab beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 1,505 patients in multiple countries (Jul 2020 - Jan 2021) Fewer symptomatic cases (p<0.0001) and faster recovery (p=0.0001) c19early.org O'Brien et al., NEJM, April 2021 Favors casirivimab/im.. Favors control

Subcutaneous REGEN-COV Antibody Combination to Prevent Covid-19

O'Brien et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2109682 (press release 4/12/21), NCT04452318
Apr 2021  
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16th treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.000018 from 28 studies, recognized in 42 countries. Efficacy is variant dependent.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Prophylaxis trial reporting lower hospitalization/ER and symptomatic cases, and faster recovery with 1,200mg subcutaneous casirivimab with imdevimab. The same trial has updated results available in c19regn.com. NCT04452318 (history).
Efficacy is variant dependent. In Vitro research suggests a lack of efficacy for many omicron variants Haars, Liu, Pochtovyi, Sheward, Tatham, VanBlargan.
risk of hospitalization/ER, 88.9% lower, RR 0.11, p = 0.06, treatment 0 of 753 (0.0%), control 4 of 752 (0.5%), NNT 188, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), day 29.
risk of symptomatic case, 81.4% lower, RR 0.19, p < 0.001, treatment 11 of 753 (1.5%), control 59 of 752 (7.8%), NNT 16, day 29.
recovery time, 62.5% lower, relative time 0.37, p < 0.001, treatment 753, control 752, relative time with symptoms.
time to viral-, 69.2% lower, relative time 0.31, p < 0.001, treatment 753, control 752, relative time with high viral load.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
O'Brien et al., 12 Apr 2021, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, 36 authors, study period 13 July, 2020 - 28 January, 2021, trial NCT04452318 (history).
This PaperCasirivimab/i..All
Subcutaneous REGEN-COV Antibody Combination to Prevent Covid-19
Meagan P O’brien, Eduardo Forleo-Neto, Bret J Musser, Flonza Isa, Kuo-Chen Chan, Neena Sarkar, Katharine J Bar, Ruanne V Barnabas, Dan H Barouch, Myron S Cohen, Christopher B Hurt, Dale R Burwen, Mary A Marovich, Peijie Hou, Ingeborg Heirman, John D Davis, Kenneth C Turner, Divya Ramesh, Adnan Mahmood, Andrea T Hooper, Jennifer D Hamilton, Yunji Kim, Lisa A Purcell, Alina Baum, Christos A Kyratsous, James Krainson, Richard Perez-Perez, Rizwana Mohseni, Bari Kowal, A Thomas Dicioccio, Neil Stahl, Leah Lipsich, Ned Braunstein, Gary Herman, George D Yancopoulos, David M Weinreich
New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/nejmoa2109682
BACKGROUND REGEN-COV (previously known as REGN-COV2), a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, has been shown to markedly reduce the risk of hospitalization or death among high-risk persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Whether subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevents severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and subsequent Covid-19 in persons at high risk for infection because of household exposure to a person with SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. METHODS We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, participants (≥12 years of age) who were enrolled within 96 hours after a household contact received a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to receive a total dose of 1200 mg of REGEN-COV or matching placebo administered by means of subcutaneous injection. At the time of randomization, participants were stratified according to the results of the local diagnostic assay for SARS-CoV-2 and according to age. The primary efficacy end point was the development of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection through day 28 in participants who did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection (as measured by reverse-transcriptasequantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay) or previous immunity (seronegativity). RESULTS Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection developed in 11 of 753 participants in the REGEN-COV group (1.5%) and in 59 of 752 participants in the placebo group (7.8%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk], 81.4%; P<0.001). In weeks 2 to 4, a total of 2 of 753 participants in the REGEN-COV group (0.3%) and 27 of 752 participants in the placebo group (3.6%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (relative risk reduction, 92.6%). REGEN-COV also prevented symptomatic and asymptomatic infections overall (relative risk reduction, 66.4%). Among symptomatic infected participants, the median time to resolution of symptoms was 2 weeks shorter with REGEN-COV than with placebo (1.2 weeks and 3.2 weeks, respectively), and the duration of a high viral load (>10 4 copies per milliliter) was shorter (0.4 weeks and 1.3 weeks, respectively). No dose-limiting toxic effects of REGEN-COV were noted. CONCLUSIONS Subcutaneous REGEN-COV prevented symptomatic Covid-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in previously uninfected household contacts of infected persons. Among the participants who became infected, REGEN-COV reduced the duration of symptomatic disease and the duration of a high viral load. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04452318.
Appendix The authors' full names and academic degrees are as follows: Meagan P. O'Brien, M.D., Eduardo Forleo-Neto, M.D., Bret J. Musser, Ph.D., Flonza Isa, M.D., Kuo-Chen Chan, Ph.D., Neena Sarkar, Ph.D., Katharine J. Bar
References
Baum, Fulton, Wloga, Antibody cocktail to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein prevents rapid mutational escape seen with individual antibodies, Science
Copin, Baum, Wloga, The monoclonal antibody combination REGEN-COV protects against SARS-CoV-2 mutational escape in preclinical and human studies, Cell
Madewell, Yang, Longini, Jr, Halloran et al., Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis, JAMA Netw Open
Wang, Nair, Liu, Antibody resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7, Nature
Weinreich, Sivapalasingam, Norton, Fact sheet for health care providers: Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)
Weinreich, Sivapalasingam, Norton, REGEN-COV antibody cocktail clinical outcomes study in Covid-19 outpatients, doi:10.1101/2021.05.19
Weinreich, Sivapalasingam, Norton, REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Wu, Zhao, Yu, A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China, Nature
Zhu, Zhang, Wang, A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, N Engl J Med
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Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Musser', 'given': 'Bret J.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. 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Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Barnabas', 'given': 'Ruanne V.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Barouch', 'given': 'Dan H.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. 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Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Hurt', 'given': 'Christopher B.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. 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Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Turner', 'given': 'Kenneth C.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Ramesh', 'given': 'Divya', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Mahmood', 'given': 'Adnan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Hooper', 'given': 'Andrea T.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Hamilton', 'given': 'Jennifer D.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Kim', 'given': 'Yunji', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Purcell', 'given': 'Lisa A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Baum', 'given': 'Alina', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Kyratsous', 'given': 'Christos A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Krainson', 'given': 'James', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Perez-Perez', 'given': 'Richard', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Mohseni', 'given': 'Rizwana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Kowal', 'given': 'Bari', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'DiCioccio', 'given': 'A. Thomas', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Stahl', 'given': 'Neil', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Lipsich', 'given': 'Leah', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Braunstein', 'given': 'Ned', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Herman', 'given': 'Gary', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Yancopoulos', 'given': 'George D.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'From Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY (M.P.O., E.F.-N., ' 'B.J.M., F.I., K.-C.C., N. Sarkar, P.H., I.H., J.D.D., K.C.T., ' 'D.R., A.M., A.T.H., J.D.H., Y.K., L.A.P., A.B., C.A.K., B.K., ' 'A.T.D., N. Stahl, L.L., N.B., G.H., G.D.Y., D.M.W.); the ' 'Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of ' 'Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (K.J.B.); the Departments of Global ' 'Health and Epidemiology and the Division of Allergy and ' 'Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, and the Vaccine ' 'and Infectious Diseases...'}], 'family': 'Weinreich', 'given': 'David M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'New England Journal of Medicine', 'container-title-short': 'N Engl J Med', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 4]], 'date-time': '2021-08-04T21:01:35Z', 'timestamp': 1628110895000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 10, 20]], 'date-time': '2022-10-20T18:06:28Z', 'timestamp': 1666289188000}, 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/100009857', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'Regeneron Pharmaceuticals'}, {'DOI': '10.13039/100007013', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'F. 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