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Vaniprevir for COVID-19

Vaniprevir has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Calleja et al., Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, Frontiers in Chemistry, doi:10.3389/fchem.2022.876212
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 causing the COVID-19 pandemic, has highlighted how a combination of urgency, collaboration and building on existing research can enable rapid vaccine development to fight disease outbreaks. However, even countries with high vaccination rates still see surges in case numbers and high numbers of hospitalized patients. The development of antiviral treatments hence remains a top priority in preventing hospitalization and death of COVID-19 patients, and eventually bringing an end to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains several essential enzymatic activities embedded within its non-structural proteins (nsps). We here focus on nsp3, that harbours an essential papain-like protease (PLpro) domain responsible for cleaving the viral polyprotein as part of viral processing. Moreover, nsp3/PLpro also cleaves ubiquitin and ISG15 modifications within the host cell, derailing innate immune responses. Small molecule inhibition of the PLpro protease domain significantly reduces viral loads in SARS-CoV-2 infection models, suggesting that PLpro is an excellent drug target for next generation antivirals. In this review we discuss the conserved structure and function of PLpro and the ongoing efforts to design small molecule PLpro inhibitors that exploit this knowledge. We first discuss the many drug repurposing attempts, concluding that it is unlikely that PLpro-targeting drugs already exist. We next discuss the wealth of structural information on SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibition, for which there are now ∼30 distinct crystal structures with small molecule inhibitors bound in a surprising number of distinct crystallographic settings. We focus on optimisation of an existing compound class, based on SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitor GRL-0617, and recapitulate how new GRL-0617 derivatives exploit different features of PLpro, to overcome some compound liabilities.
Khalifa et al., After the Hurricane: Anti-COVID-19 Drugs Development, Molecular Mechanisms of Action and Future Perspectives, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms25020739
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new coronavirus in the Coronaviridae family. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has undoubtedly been the largest crisis of the twenty-first century, resulting in over 6.8 million deaths and 686 million confirmed cases, creating a global public health issue. Hundreds of notable articles have been published since the onset of this pandemic to justify the cause of viral spread, viable preventive measures, and future therapeutic approaches. As a result, this review was developed to provide a summary of the current anti-COVID-19 drugs, as well as their timeline, molecular mode of action, and efficacy. It also sheds light on potential future treatment options. Several medications, notably hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, were initially claimed to be effective in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 but eventually demonstrated inadequate activity, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) withdrew hydroxychloroquine. Clinical trials and investigations, on the other hand, have demonstrated the efficacy of remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies, 6-Thioguanine, hepatitis C protease inhibitors, and molnupiravir. Other therapeutics, including inhaled medicines, flavonoids, and aptamers, could pave the way for the creation of novel anti-COVID-19 therapies. As future pandemics are unavoidable, this article urges immediate action and extensive research efforts to develop potent specialized anti-COVID-19 medications.
Yevsieieva et al., Main and papain-like proteases as prospective targets for pharmacological treatment of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, RSC Advances, doi:10.1039/d3ra06479d
The review outlines coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 morphology, life cycle, and essential proteins, focusing on a design strategy for dual-acting inhibitors for PLpro and Mpro proteases.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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