Tipifarnib for COVID-19
Tipifarnib has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
A review on in silico virtual screening methods in COVID-19 using anticancer drugs and other natural/chemical inhibitors, Exploration of Targeted Anti-tumor Therapy, doi:10.37349/etat.2023.00177 ,
The present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenario has posed a difficulty for cancer treatment. Even under ideal conditions, malignancies like small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are challenging to treat because of their fast development and early metastases. The treatment of these patients must not be jeopardized, and they must be protected as much as possible from the continuous spread of the COVID-19 infection. Initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the contagious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finding inhibitors against the druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant focus of research efforts across the globe. The primary motivation for using molecular modeling tools against SARS-CoV-2 was to identify candidates for use as therapeutic targets from a pharmacological database. In the published study, scientists used a combination of medication repurposing and virtual drug screening methodologies to target many structures of SARS-CoV-2. This virus plays an essential part in the maturation and replication of other viruses. In addition, the total binding free energy and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling findings showed that the dynamics of various medications and substances were stable; some of them have been tested experimentally against SARS-CoV-2. Different virtual screening (VS) methods have been discussed as potential means by which the evaluated medications that show strong binding to the active site might be repurposed for use against SARS-CoV-2.
A Repurposed Drug Screen Identifies Compounds That Inhibit the Binding of the COVID-19 Spike Protein to ACE2, Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.685308 ,
Repurposed drugs that block the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its receptor ACE2 could offer a rapid route to novel COVID-19 treatments or prophylactics. Here, we screened 2,701 compounds from a commercial library of drugs approved by international regulatory agencies for their ability to inhibit the binding of recombinant, trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to recombinant human ACE2. We identified 56 compounds that inhibited binding in a concentration-dependent manner, measured the IC50of binding inhibition, and computationally modeled the docking of the best inhibitors to the Spike-ACE2 binding interface. The best candidates were Thiostrepton, Oxytocin, Nilotinib, and Hydroxycamptothecin with IC50’s in the 4–9 μM range. These results highlight an effective screening approach to identify compounds capable of disrupting the Spike-ACE2 interaction, as well as identify several potential inhibitors of the Spike-ACE2 interaction.
Drugs repurposed for COVID-19 by virtual screening of 6,218 drugs and cell-based assay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2024302118 ,
Significance Recent spread of SARS-CoV-2 has sparked significant health concerns of emerging infectious viruses. Drug repurposing is a tangible strategy for developing antiviral agents within a short period. In general, drug repurposing starts with virtual screening of approved drugs employing docking simulations. However, the actual hit rate is low, and most of the predicted compounds are false positives. To tackle the challenges, we report advanced virtual screening with pre- and postdocking pharmacophore filtering of 6,218 drugs for COVID-19. Notably, 7 out of 38 compounds showed efficacies in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Three of these were also found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in human Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, three drug combinations showed strong synergistic effects in SARS-CoV-2 inhibition at their clinically achievable concentrations.
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