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Suramin for COVID-19

Suramin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Salgado-Benvindo et al., Suramin Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Cell Culture by Interfering with Early Steps of the Replication Cycle, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1128/AAC.00900-20
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic that originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 has impacted public health, society, the global economy, and the daily lives of billions of people in an unprecedented manner. There are currently no specific registered antiviral drugs to treat or prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. Therefore, drug repurposing would be the fastest route to provide at least a temporary solution while better, more specific drugs are being developed.
Day et al., Multidisciplinary Approaches Identify Compounds that Bind to Human ACE2 or SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein as Candidates to Block SARS-CoV-2–ACE2 Receptor Interactions, mBio, doi:10.1128/mBio.03681-20
SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused more than 60 million cases worldwide with almost 1.5 million deaths as of November 2020. Repurposing existing drugs is the most rapid path to clinical intervention for emerging diseases.
Comunale et al., The Functional Implications of Broad Spectrum Bioactive Compounds Targeting RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp) in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15122316
Background: As long as COVID-19 endures, viral surface proteins will keep changing and new viral strains will emerge, rendering prior vaccines and treatments decreasingly effective. To provide durable targets for preventive and therapeutic agents, there is increasing interest in slowly mutating viral proteins, including non-surface proteins like RdRp. Methods: A scoping review of studies was conducted describing RdRp in the context of COVID-19 through MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. An iterative approach was used with input from content experts and three independent reviewers, focused on studies related to either RdRp activity inhibition or RdRp mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2. Results: Of the 205 records screened, 43 studies were included in the review. Twenty-five evaluated RdRp activity inhibition, and eighteen described RdRp mechanisms of existing drugs or compounds against SARS-CoV-2. In silico experiments suggested that RdRp inhibitors developed for other RNA viruses may be effective in disrupting SARS-CoV-2 replication, indicating a possible reduction of disease progression from current and future variants. In vitro, in vivo, and human clinical trial studies were largely consistent with these findings. Conclusions: Future risk mitigation and treatment strategies against forthcoming SARS-CoV-2 variants should consider targeting RdRp proteins instead of surface proteins.
Atoum et al., Paving New Roads Using Allium sativum as a Repurposed Drug and Analyzing its Antiviral Action Using Artificial Intelligence Technology, Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.5812/ijpr-131577
Context: The whole universe is facing a coronavirus catastrophe, and prompt treatment for the health crisis is primarily significant. The primary way to improve health conditions in this battle is to boost our immunity and alter our diet patterns. A common bulb veggie used to flavor cuisine is garlic. Compounds in the plant that are physiologically active are present, contributing to its pharmacological characteristics. Among several food items with nutritional value and immunity improvement, garlic stood predominant and more resourceful natural antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antiviral potency against diverse viruses. However, earlier reports have depicted its efficacy in the treatment of a variety of viral illnesses. Nonetheless, there is no information on its antiviral activities and underlying molecular mechanisms. Objectives: The bioactive compounds in garlic include organosulfur (allicin and alliin) and flavonoid (quercetin) compounds. These compounds have shown immunomodulatory effects and inhibited attachment of coronavirus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Further, we have discussed the contradictory impacts of garlic used as a preventive measure against the novel coronavirus. Method: The GC/MS analysis revealed 18 active chemicals, including 17 organosulfur compounds in garlic. Using the molecular docking technique, we report for the first time the inhibitory effect of the under-consideration compounds on the host receptor ACE2 protein in the human body, providing a crucial foundation for understanding individual compound coronavirus resistance on the main protease protein of SARS-CoV-2. Allyl disulfide and allyl trisulfide, which make up the majority of the compounds in garlic, exhibit the most potent activity. Results: Conventional medicine has proven its efficiency from ancient times. Currently, our article's prime spotlight was on the activity of Allium sativum on the relegation of viral load and further highlighted artificial intelligence technology to study the attachment of the allicin compound to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor to reveal its efficacy. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered interest among researchers to conduct future research on molecular docking with clinical trials before releasing salutary remedies against the deadly malady.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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