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Sulfated ENC for COVID-19

Sulfated ENC has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Carvajal-Barriga et al., Sulfated endospermic nanocellulose crystals prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-33686-y
AbstractBiomaterials with antimicrobial activity are gaining attention due to their biodegradability and efficacy in interacting with a wide range of microorganisms. A new cellulose nano-biomaterial, endospermic nanocellulose crystals (ENC) obtained from parenchymal tissue of ivory nut endosperm, has a natural capacity as a universal binder. This feature is enhanced when it is chemically functionalized, and can be exploited in the fight against microbes. We tested the ability of sulfated ENC in aqueous suspension to encapsulate viruses through a crosslinking reaction mediated by cations. 0.25% w/v ENC suspensions efficiently encapsulated spike (S) protein, preventing its interaction with ACE2 receptor. ENC was further able to encapsulate SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses and prevent infection of 293T-hsACE2 cells. ENC also suppressed infection of MT-4 cells with HIV-1LAI.04. This antiviral activity of sulfated ENC is due to the irreversible interaction of ENC with viral particles mediated by crosslinking, as antiviral activity was less effective in the absence of cations. Additionally, ENC was used as a matrix to immobilize recombinant ACE2 receptors and anti-S IgG, creating molecular lures that efficiently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infections in vitro. These results show that sulfated ENC from ivory nuts can be used as an efficient antiviral material.
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