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Rapamycin for COVID-19

Rapamycin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Gordon et al., A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.002386
ABSTRACTAn outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 290,000 people since the end of 2019, killed over 12,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. Unfortunately, the scientific community has little knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To illuminate this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 viral proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins physically associated with each using affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), which identified 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 existing FDA-approved drugs, drugs in clinical trials and/or preclinical compounds, that we are currently evaluating for efficacy in live SARS-CoV-2 infection assays. The identification of host dependency factors mediating virus infection may provide key insights into effective molecular targets for developing broadly acting antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.
Heiser et al., Identification of potential treatments for COVID-19 through artificial intelligence-enabled phenomic analysis of human cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.21.054387
AbstractTo identify potential therapeutic stop-gaps for SARS-CoV-2, we evaluated a library of 1,670 approved and reference compounds in an unbiased, cellular image-based screen for their ability to suppress the broad impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on phenomic profiles of human renal cortical epithelial cells using deep learning. In our assay, remdesivir is the only antiviral tested with strong efficacy, neither chloroquine nor hydroxychloroquine have any beneficial effect in this human cell model, and a small number of compounds not currently being pursued clinically for SARS-CoV-2 have efficacy. We observed weak but beneficial class effects of β-blockers, mTOR/PI3K inhibitors and Vitamin D analogues and a mild amplification of the viral phenotype with β-agonists.
Kumar, S., COVID-19: A Drug Repurposing and Biomarker Identification by Using Comprehensive Gene-Disease Associations through Protein-Protein Interaction Network Analysis, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0440.v1
COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) is a pandemic disease with an estimated mortality rate of 3.4% (estimated by the WHO as of March 3, 2020). Until now there is no antiviral drug and vaccine for COVID-19. The current overwhelming situation by COVID-19 patients in hospitals is likely to increase in the next few months. About 15 percent of patients with serious disease in COVID-19 require immediate health services. Rather than waiting for new anti-viral drugs or vaccines that take a few months to years to develop and test, several researchers and public health agencies are attempting to repurpose medicines that are already approved for another similar disease and have proved to be fairly effective. This study aims to identify FDA approved drugs that can be used for drug repurposing and identify biomarkers among high- risk and asymptomatic groups. In this study gene-disease association related to COVID-19 reported mild, severe symptoms and clinical outcomes were determined. The high-risk group was studied related to SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and life cycle by using Disgenet and compared with curated COVID-19 gene data sets from the CTD database. The overlapped gene sets were enriched and the selected genes were constructed for protein-protein interaction networks. Through interactome, key genes were identified for COVID-19 and also for high risk and asymptomatic groups. The key hub genes involved in COVID-19 were VEGFA, TNF, IL-6, CXCL8, IL10, CCL2, IL1B, TLR4, ICAM1, MMP9. The identified key genes were used for drug-gene interaction for drug repurposing. The chloroquine, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, thalidome, sorafenib, pacitaxel, rapamycin, cortisol, statins were proposed to be probable drug repurposing candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. However, these predicted drug candidates need to be validated through randomized clinical trials. Also, a key gene involved in high risk and the asymptomatic group were identified, which can be used as probable biomarkers for early identification.
Cesar-Silva et al., Lipid compartments and lipid metabolism as therapeutic targets against coronavirus, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1268854
Lipids perform a series of cellular functions, establishing cell and organelles’ boundaries, organizing signaling platforms, and creating compartments where specific reactions occur. Moreover, lipids store energy and act as secondary messengers whose distribution is tightly regulated. Disruption of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases, including those caused by viruses. In this scenario, lipids can favor virus replication and are not solely used as pathogens’ energy source. In contrast, cells can counteract viruses using lipids as weapons. In this review, we discuss the available data on how coronaviruses profit from cellular lipid compartments and why targeting lipid metabolism may be a powerful strategy to fight these cellular parasites. We also provide a formidable collection of data on the pharmacological approaches targeting lipid metabolism to impair and treat coronavirus infection.
Sokouti, B., A review on in silico virtual screening methods in COVID-19 using anticancer drugs and other natural/chemical inhibitors, Exploration of Targeted Anti-tumor Therapy, doi:10.37349/etat.2023.00177
The present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenario has posed a difficulty for cancer treatment. Even under ideal conditions, malignancies like small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are challenging to treat because of their fast development and early metastases. The treatment of these patients must not be jeopardized, and they must be protected as much as possible from the continuous spread of the COVID-19 infection. Initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the contagious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finding inhibitors against the druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant focus of research efforts across the globe. The primary motivation for using molecular modeling tools against SARS-CoV-2 was to identify candidates for use as therapeutic targets from a pharmacological database. In the published study, scientists used a combination of medication repurposing and virtual drug screening methodologies to target many structures of SARS-CoV-2. This virus plays an essential part in the maturation and replication of other viruses. In addition, the total binding free energy and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling findings showed that the dynamics of various medications and substances were stable; some of them have been tested experimentally against SARS-CoV-2. Different virtual screening (VS) methods have been discussed as potential means by which the evaluated medications that show strong binding to the active site might be repurposed for use against SARS-CoV-2.
Oliver et al., Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Ceja-Gálvez et al., Severe COVID-19: Drugs and Clinical Trials, Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm12082893
By January of 2023, the COVID-19 pandemic had led to a reported total of 6,700,883 deaths and 662,631,114 cases worldwide. To date, there have been no effective therapies or standardized treatment schemes for this disease; therefore, the search for effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategies is a primary goal that must be addressed. This review aims to provide an analysis of the most efficient and promising therapies and drugs for the prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19, comparing their degree of success, scope, and limitations, with the aim of providing support to health professionals in choosing the best pharmacological approach. An investigation of the most promising and effective treatments against COVID-19 that are currently available was carried out by employing search terms including “Convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19” or “Viral polymerase inhibitors” and “COVID-19” in the and PubMed databases. From the current perspective and with the information available from the various clinical trials assessing the efficacy of different therapeutic options, we conclude that it is necessary to standardize certain variables—such as the viral clearance time, biomarkers associated with severity, hospital stay, requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality rate—in order to facilitate verification of the efficacy of such treatments and to better assess the repeatability of the most effective and promising results.
Mosharaf et al., Computational identification of host genomic biomarkers highlighting their functions, pathways and regulators that influence SARS-CoV-2 infections and drug repurposing, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-08073-8
AbstractThe pandemic threat of COVID-19 has severely destroyed human life as well as the economy around the world. Although, the vaccination has reduced the outspread, but people are still suffering due to the unstable RNA sequence patterns of SARS-CoV-2 which demands supplementary drugs. To explore novel drug target proteins, in this study, a transcriptomics RNA-Seq data generated from SARS-CoV-2 infection and control samples were analyzed. We identified 109 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were utilized to identify 10 hub-genes/proteins (TLR2, USP53, GUCY1A2, SNRPD2, NEDD9, IGF2, CXCL2, KLF6, PAG1 and ZFP36) by the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. The GO functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of hub-DEGs revealed some important functions and signaling pathways that are significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. The interaction network analysis identified 5 TFs proteins and 6 miRNAs as the key regulators of hub-DEGs. Considering 10 hub-proteins and 5 key TFs-proteins as drug target receptors, we performed their docking analysis with the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease-guided top listed 90 FDA approved drugs. We found Torin-2, Rapamycin, Radotinib, Ivermectin, Thiostrepton, Tacrolimus and Daclatasvir as the top ranked seven candidate drugs. We investigated their resistance performance against the already published COVID-19 causing top-ranked 11 independent and 8 protonated receptor proteins by molecular docking analysis and found their strong binding affinities, which indicates that the proposed drugs are effective against the state-of-the-arts alternatives independent receptor proteins also. Finally, we investigated the stability of top three drugs (Torin-2, Rapamycin and Radotinib) by using 100 ns MD-based MM-PBSA simulations with the two top-ranked proposed receptors (TLR2, USP53) and independent receptors (IRF7, STAT1), and observed their stable performance. Therefore, the proposed drugs might play a vital role for the treatment against different variants of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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