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Pectolinarin for COVID-19

Pectolinarin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Sharun et al., A comprehensive review on pharmacologic agents, immunotherapies and supportive therapeutics for COVID-19, Narra J, doi:10.52225/narra.v2i3.92
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected many countries throughout the world. As urgency is a necessity, most efforts have focused on identifying small molecule drugs that can be repurposed for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Although several drug candidates have been identified using in silico method and in vitro studies, most of these drugs require the support of in vivo data before they can be considered for clinical trials. Several drugs are considered promising therapeutic agents for COVID-19. In addition to the direct-acting antiviral drugs, supportive therapies including traditional Chinese medicine, immunotherapies, immunomodulators, and nutritional therapy could contribute a major role in treating COVID-19 patients. Some of these drugs have already been included in the treatment guidelines, recommendations, and standard operating procedures. In this article, we comprehensively review the approved and potential therapeutic drugs, immune cells-based therapies, immunomodulatory agents/drugs, herbs and plant metabolites, nutritional and dietary for COVID-19.
Alkafaas et al., A study on the effect of natural products against the transmission of B.1.1.529 Omicron, Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02160-6
Abstract Background The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic resulted in a successful vaccination program launched by the World Health Organization. However, a large population is still unvaccinated, leading to the emergence of mutated strains like alpha, beta, delta, and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Recent reports from the World Health Organization raised concerns about the Omicron variant, which emerged in South Africa during a surge in COVID-19 cases in November 2021. Vaccines are not proven completely effective or safe against Omicron, leading to clinical trials for combating infection by the mutated virus. The absence of suitable pharmaceuticals has led scientists and clinicians to search for alternative and supplementary therapies, including dietary patterns, to reduce the effect of mutated strains. Main body This review analyzed Coronavirus aetiology, epidemiology, and natural products for combating Omicron. Although the literature search did not include keywords related to in silico or computational research, in silico investigations were emphasized in this study. Molecular docking was implemented to compare the interaction between natural products and Chloroquine with the ACE2 receptor protein amino acid residues of Omicron. The global Omicron infection proceeding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was also elucidated. The docking results suggest that DGCG may bind to the ACE2 receptor three times more effectively than standard chloroquine. Conclusion The emergence of the Omicron variant has highlighted the need for alternative therapies to reduce the impact of mutated strains. The current review suggests that natural products such as DGCG may be effective in binding to the ACE2 receptor and combating the Omicron variant, however, further research is required to validate the results of this study and explore the potential of natural products to mitigate COVID-19. Graphical abstract
Singh et al., Unlocking the potential of phytochemicals in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 M Pro protein - An in-silico and cell-based approach, Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Abstract The main protease (MPro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in viral replication and is a prime target for therapeutic interventions. Phytochemicals, known for their antiviral properties, have been previously identified as potential MPro inhibitors in several in silico studies. However, the efficacy of these remains in question owing to the inherent flexibility of the MPro binding site, posing challenges in selecting suitable protein structures for virtual screening. In this study, we conducted an extensive analysis of the MPro binding pocket, utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore its conformational diversity. Based on pocket volume and shape-based clustering, five representative protein conformations were selected for virtual screening. Virtual screening of a library of ~ 48,000 phytochemicals suggested 39 phytochemicals as potential MPro inhibitors. Based on subsequent MM-GBSA binding energy calculations and ADMET property predictions, five compounds were advanced to cell-based viral replication inhibition assays, with three compounds (demethoxycurcumin, shikonin, and withaferin A) exhibiting significant (EC50 < 10 uM) inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our study provides an understanding of the binding interactions between these phytochemicals and MPro, contributing significantly to the identification of promising MPro inhibitors. Furthermore, beyond its impact on therapeutic development against SARS-CoV-2, this research highlights a crucial role of proper nutrition in the fight against viral infections.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Srivastava et al., A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Tallei et al., Potential of Plant Bioactive Compounds as SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) Glycoprotein Inhibitors: A Molecular Docking Study, Scientifica, doi:10.1155/2020/6307457
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pandemic, researchers have been trying to investigate several active compounds found in plants that have the potential to inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The present study aimed to evaluate bioactive compounds found in plants using a molecular docking approach to inhibit the main protease (Mpro) and spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The evaluation was performed on the docking scores calculated using AutoDock Vina (AV) as a docking engine. A rule of five (Ro5) was calculated to determine whether a compound meets the criteria as an active drug orally in humans. The determination of the docking score was performed by selecting the best conformation of the protein-ligand complex that had the highest affinity (most negative Gibbs’ free energy of binding/ <math xmlns="" id="M1"> <mi mathvariant="normal">Δ</mi> <mi>G</mi> </math> ). As a comparison, nelfinavir (an antiretroviral drug), chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (antimalarial drugs recommended by the FDA as emergency drugs) were used. The results showed that hesperidin, nabiximols, pectolinarin, epigallocatechin gallate, and rhoifolin had better poses than nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as spike glycoprotein inhibitors. Hesperidin, rhoifolin, pectolinarin, and nabiximols had about the same pose as nelfinavir but were better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as Mpro inhibitors. This finding implied that several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19. From quantum chemical DFT calculations, the ascending order of chemical reactivity of selected compounds was pectolinarin &gt; hesperidin &gt; rhoifolin &gt; morin &gt; epigallocatechin gallate. All isolated compounds’ C=O regions are preferable for an electrophilic attack, and O-H regions are suitable for a nucleophilic attack. Furthermore, Homo-Lumo and global descriptor values indicated a satisfactory remarkable profile for the selected compounds. As judged by the RO5 and previous study by others, the compounds kaempferol, herbacetin, eugenol, and 6-shogaol have good oral bioavailability, so they are also seen as promising candidates for the development of drugs to treat infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. The present study identified plant-based compounds that can be further investigated in vitro and in vivo as lead compounds against SARS-CoV-2.
Rahman et al., In silico investigation and potential therapeutic approaches of natural products for COVID-19: Computer-aided drug design perspective, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.929430
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a substantial number of deaths around the world, making it a serious and pressing public health hazard. Phytochemicals could thus provide a rich source of potent and safer anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. The absence of approved treatments or vaccinations continues to be an issue, forcing the creation of new medicines. Computer-aided drug design has helped to speed up the drug research and development process by decreasing costs and time. Natural compounds like terpenoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, and flavonoid derivatives have a perfect impact against viral replication and facilitate future studies in novel drug discovery. This would be more effective if collaboration took place between governments, researchers, clinicians, and traditional medicine practitioners’ safe and effective therapeutic research. Through a computational approach, this study aims to contribute to the development of effective treatment methods by examining the mechanisms relating to the binding and subsequent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The in silico method has also been employed to determine the most effective drug among the mentioned compound and their aquatic, nonaquatic, and pharmacokinetics’ data have been analyzed. The highest binding energy has been reported -11.4 kcal/mol against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (7MBG) in L05. Besides, all the ligands are non-carcinogenic, excluding L04, and have good water solubility and no AMES toxicity. The discovery of preclinical drug candidate molecules and the structural elucidation of pharmacological therapeutic targets have expedited both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. This review article will assist physicians and researchers in realizing the enormous potential of computer-aided drug design in the design and discovery of therapeutic molecules, and hence in the treatment of deadly diseases.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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