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Naringin for COVID-19

Naringin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Sharanya et al., Computational screening combined with well-tempered metadynamics simulations identifies potential TMPRSS2 inhibitors, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-65296-7
AbstractType-II transmembrane serine proteases are effective pharmacological targets for host defence against viral entry and in certain cancer cell progressions. These serine proteases cleave viral spike proteins to expose the fusion peptide for cell entry, which is essential to the life cycle of the virus. TMPRSS2 inhibitors can also fight against respiratory viruses that employ them for cell entry. Our study combining virtual screening, all-atom molecular dynamics, and well-tempered metadynamics simulation identifies vicenin-2, neohesperidin, naringin, and rhoifolin as promising TMPRSS2 antagonists. The binding energies obtained are − 16.3, − 15.4, − 13.6, and − 13.8 kcal/mol for vicenin-2, neohesperidin, naringin, and rhoifolin respectively. The RMSD, RMSF, PCA, DCCM, and binding free energy profiles also correlate with the stable binding of these ligands at the active site of TMPRSS2. The study reveals that these molecules could be promising lead molecules for combating future outbreaks of coronavirus and other respiratory viruses.
Raman et al., Phytoconstituents of Citrus limon (Lemon) as Potential Inhibitors Against Multi Targets of SARS‐CoV‐2 by Use of Molecular Modelling and In Vitro Determination Approaches, ChemistryOpen, doi:10.1002/open.202300198
AbstractIn the present work, phytoconstituents from Citrus limon are computationally tested against SARS‐CoV‐2 target protein such as Mpro ‐ (5R82.pdb), Spike ‐ (6YZ5.pdb) &RdRp ‐ (7BTF.pdb) for COVID‐19. Docking was done by glide model, QikProp was performed by in silico ADMET screening & Prime MM‐GB/SA modules were used to define binding energy. When compared with approved COVID‐19 drugs such as Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, and Hydroxychloroquine, plant‐based constituents such as Quercetin, Rutoside, Naringin, Eriocitrin, and Hesperidin. bind with significant G‐scores to the active SARS‐CoV‐2 place. The constituents Rutoside and Eriocitrin were studied in each MD simulation in 100 ns against 3 proteins 5R82.pdb, 6YZ5.pdb and 7BTF.pdb.We performed an assay with significant natural compounds from contacts and in silico results (Rutin, Eriocitrin, Naringin, Hesperidin) using 3CL protease assay kit (B.11529 Omicron variant). This kit contained 3CL inhibitor GC376 as Control. The IC50 value of the test compound was found to be Rutin −17.50 μM, Eriocitrin−37.91 μM, Naringin−39.58 μM, Hesperidine−140.20 μM, the standard inhibitory concentration of GC376 was 38.64 μM. The phytoconstituents showed important interactions with SARS‐CoV‐2 targets, and potential modifications could be beneficial for future development.
Liu et al., Potential Beneficial Effects of Naringin and Naringenin on Long COVID—A Review of the Literature, Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12020332
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a severe epidemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent studies have found that patients do not completely recover from acute infections, but instead, suffer from a variety of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, known as long COVID. The effects of long COVID can be far-reaching, with a duration of up to six months and a range of symptoms such as cognitive dysfunction, immune dysregulation, microbiota dysbiosis, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, myocarditis, pulmonary fibrosis, cough, diabetes, pain, reproductive dysfunction, and thrombus formation. However, recent studies have shown that naringenin and naringin have palliative effects on various COVID-19 sequelae. Flavonoids such as naringin and naringenin, commonly found in fruits and vegetables, have various positive effects, including reducing inflammation, preventing viral infections, and providing antioxidants. This article discusses the molecular mechanisms and clinical effects of naringin and naringenin on treating the above diseases. It proposes them as potential drugs for the treatment of long COVID, and it can be inferred that naringin and naringenin exhibit potential as extended long COVID medications, in the future likely serving as nutraceuticals or clinical supplements for the comprehensive alleviation of the various manifestations of COVID-19 complications.
Singh et al., Computational Approaches to Designing Antiviral Drugs against COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review, Current Pharmaceutical Design, doi:10.2174/0113816128259795231023193419
Abstract: The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 necessitates innovative strategies for the rapid development of effective treatments. Computational methodologies, such as molecular modelling, molecular dynamics simulations, and artificial intelligence, have emerged as indispensable tools in the drug discovery process. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of these computational approaches and their application in the design of antiviral agents for COVID-19. Starting with an examination of ligand-based and structure-based drug discovery, the review has delved into the intricate ways through which molecular modelling can accelerate the identification of potential therapies. Additionally, the investigation extends to phytochemicals sourced from nature, which have shown promise as potential antiviral agents. Noteworthy compounds, including gallic acid, naringin, hesperidin, Tinospora cordifolia, curcumin, nimbin, azadironic acid, nimbionone, nimbionol, and nimocinol, have exhibited high affinity for COVID-19 Mpro and favourable binding energy profiles compared to current drugs. Although these compounds hold potential, their further validation through in vitro and in vivo experimentation is imperative. Throughout this exploration, the review has emphasized the pivotal role of computational biologists, bioinformaticians, and biotechnologists in driving rapid advancements in clinical research and therapeutic development. By combining state-of-the-art computational techniques with insights from structural and molecular biology, the search for potent antiviral agents has been accelerated. The collaboration between these disciplines holds immense promise in addressing the transmissibility and virulence of SARS-CoV-2.
Nasirzadeh et al., Inhibiting IL-6 During Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: Potential Role of Natural Products, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0131.v1
Plant species with anti-inflammatory properties might play an essential role in combatting COVID-19 via reducing cytokine storms. We aimed to review the extant evidence of the potential therapeutic efficacy of natural products against cytokine storms by inhibiting interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a major pathological mediator. Data were collected following an electronic search in major databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar) and also preprint articles on preprint and medRxiv servers by using a combination of relevant keywords. Seventeen active compounds and medicinal plants were found and reviewed in the present review. Results of both in-vivo and in-vitro experiments conducted on these compounds showed that Phillyrin, SMFM, Qiangzhi decoction, curcumin, Shen-Fu, Forsythia, and Alpha-Mangostin inhibit the production of IL-6. Andrographolide and Liu Shen Wan have an inhibitory effect on releasing this agent, while Ilex Asprella and Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and naringin reduce the expression of IL-6. Theaflavin and Cholorogenic acid inhibit the secretion of IL-6, Xuebijing, and Chai-Hu-Gui-Zi-Gan-Jiang-Tang and Lipanpaidu prescription can reduce the serum level of IL-6. These agents also effectively improve infected lungs, increase survival rates, and minimize tissue damage. Medicinal plants and their phytochemical ingredients with down-regulatory effects on the expression of IL-6 have a potential influence on the inhibition of cytokine storms during viral infection caused by COVID-19. Therefore, phytochemicals could be regarded as promising candidates for managing cytokine storm inflammatory responses due to COVID-19 infection.
Mardaneh et al., Inhibiting NF-κB During Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: Potential Role of Natural Products as a Promising Therapeutic Approach, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0130.v1
Many inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 inhibits IFN antiviral responses, so we should expect an out-of-control viral replication. “Cytokine storms” occur due to the over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after an influx of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages and may be responsible for the immunopathology of the lung involvement. Several cascades have been reported in the activation process of NF-κB. In this paper, to find new therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection, we reviewed some natural products that could potentially inhibit the NF-κB pathway. We found that sevoflurane, quercetin, resveratrol, curcumin, KIOM-C, bergenin, garcinia kola, shenfu, piperlongumine, wogonin, oroxylin, plantamajoside, naringin, ginseng, kaempferol, allium sativum L, illicium henryi, isoliquiritigenin, lianhua qingwen, magnoflorine, and ma Huang Tang might be effective in inhibiting the NF-KB pathway. These natural products could be helpful in the control of COVID-19 infections. However, larger clinical trials are needed to ascertain the efficacy of these products fully.
Aati et al., Garcinia cambogia Phenolics as Potent Anti-COVID-19 Agents: Phytochemical Profiling, Biological Activities, and Molecular Docking, Plants, doi:10.3390/plants11192521
COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and became a pandemic in a critically short time. Phenolic secondary metabolites attracted much attention from the pharmaceutical industries for their easily accessible natural sources and proven antiviral activity. In our mission, a metabolomics study of the Garcinia cambogia Roxb. fruit rind was performed using LC-HRESIMS to investigate its chemical profile, especially the polar aspects, followed by a detailed phytochemical analysis, which led to the isolation of eight known compounds. Using spectrometric techniques, the isolated compounds were identified as quercetin, amentoflavone, vitexin, rutin, naringin, catechin, p-coumaric, and gallic acids. The antiviral activities of the isolated compounds were investigated using two assays; the 3CL-Mpro enzyme showed that naringin had a potent effect with IC50 16.62 μg/mL, followed by catechin and gallic acid (IC50 26.2, 30.35 μg/mL, respectively), while the direct antiviral inhibition effect of naringin confirmed the potency with an EC50 of 0.0169 μM. To show the molecular interaction, in situ molecular docking was carried out using a COVID-19 protease enzyme. Both biological effects and docking studies showed the hydrophobic interactions with Gln 189 or Glu 166, per the predicated binding pose of the isolated naringin.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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