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Naringenin for COVID-19

Naringenin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Wu et al., Network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis identifies potential therapeutic targets of Naringenin against COVID-19/LUSC, Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2023.1187882
BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) is a highly contagious respiratory disease that has posed a serious threat to people’s daily lives and caused an unprecedented challenge to public health and people’s health worldwide. Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a common type of lung malignancy with a highly aggressive nature and poor prognosis. Patients with LUSC could be at risk for COVID-19, We conducted this study to examine the potential for naringenin to develop into an ideal medicine and investigate the underlying action mechanisms of naringenin in COVID-19 and LUSC due to the anti-viral, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities of naringenin.MethodsLUSC related genes were obtained from TCGA, PharmGKB, TTD,GeneCards and NCBI, and then the transcriptome data for COVID-19 was downloaded from GEO, DisGeNET, CTD, DrugBank, PubChem, TTD, NCBI Gene, OMIM. The drug targets of Naringenin were revealed through CTD, BATMAN, TCMIP, SymMap, Chemical Association Networks, SwissTargetPrediction, PharmMapper, ECTM, and DGIdb. The genes related to susceptibility to COVID-19 in LUSC patients were obtained through differential analysis. The interaction of COVID-19/LUSC related genes was evaluated and demonstrated using STRING to develop a a COX risk regression model to screen and evaluate the association of genes with clinical characteristics. To investigate the related functional and pathway analysis of the common targets of COVID-19/LUSC and Naringenin, KEGG and GO enrichment analysis were employed to perform the functional analysis of the target genes. Finally, The Hub Gene was screened and visualized using Cytoscape, and molecular docking between the drug and the target was performed using Autodock.ResultsWe discovered numerous COVID-19/LUSC target genes and examined their prognostic value in LUSC patients utilizing a variety of bioinformatics and network pharmacology methods. Furthermore, a risk score model with strong predictive performance was developed based on these target genes to assess the prognosis of LUSC patients with COVID-19. We intersected the therapeutic target genes of naringenin with the LUSC, COVID-19-related targets, and identified 354 common targets, which could be used as potential target genes for naringenin to treat COVID-19/LUSC. The treatment of COVID-19/LUSC with naringenin may involve oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiviral, apoptosis, immunological, and multiple pathways containing PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, and VEGF, according to the results of the GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of these 354 common targets. By constructing a PPI network, we ascertained AKT1, TP53, SRC, MAPK1, MAPK3, and HSP90AA1 as possible hub targets of naringenin for the treatment of COVID-19/LUSC. Last but not least, molecular docking investigations showed that naringenin has strong binding activity in COVID-19/LUSC.ConclusionWe revealed for the first time the pharmacological targets and potential molecular processes of naringenin for..
Liu et al., Potential Beneficial Effects of Naringin and Naringenin on Long COVID—A Review of the Literature, Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12020332
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a severe epidemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent studies have found that patients do not completely recover from acute infections, but instead, suffer from a variety of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, known as long COVID. The effects of long COVID can be far-reaching, with a duration of up to six months and a range of symptoms such as cognitive dysfunction, immune dysregulation, microbiota dysbiosis, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, myocarditis, pulmonary fibrosis, cough, diabetes, pain, reproductive dysfunction, and thrombus formation. However, recent studies have shown that naringenin and naringin have palliative effects on various COVID-19 sequelae. Flavonoids such as naringin and naringenin, commonly found in fruits and vegetables, have various positive effects, including reducing inflammation, preventing viral infections, and providing antioxidants. This article discusses the molecular mechanisms and clinical effects of naringin and naringenin on treating the above diseases. It proposes them as potential drugs for the treatment of long COVID, and it can be inferred that naringin and naringenin exhibit potential as extended long COVID medications, in the future likely serving as nutraceuticals or clinical supplements for the comprehensive alleviation of the various manifestations of COVID-19 complications.
Liu et al., Plant‐derived compounds as potential leads for new drug development targeting COVID‐19, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.8105
AbstractCOVID‐19, which was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Although some patients infected with COVID‐19 can remain asymptomatic, most experience a range of symptoms that can be mild to severe. Common symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of taste or smell and muscle aches. In severe cases, complications can arise including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organ failure and even death, particularly in older adults or individuals with underlying health conditions. Treatments for COVID‐19 include remdesivir, which has been authorised for emergency use in some countries, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid used to reduce inflammation in severe cases. Biological drugs including monoclonal antibodies, such as casirivimab and imdevimab, have also been authorised for emergency use in certain situations. While these treatments have improved the outcome for many patients, there is still an urgent need for new treatments. Medicinal plants have long served as a valuable source of new drug leads and may serve as a valuable resource in the development of COVID‐19 treatments due to their broad‐spectrum antiviral activity. To date, various medicinal plant extracts have been studied for their cellular and molecular interactions, with some demonstrating anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 activity in vitro. This review explores the evaluation and potential therapeutic applications of these plants against SARS‐CoV‐2. This review summarises the latest evidence on the activity of different plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds against SARS‐CoV‐2, with a focus on the application of plant‐derived compounds in animal models and in human studies.
Fauquet et al., Microfluidic Diffusion Sizing Applied to the Study of Natural Products and Extracts That Modulate the SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD/ACE2 Interaction, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28248072
The interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and ACE2 proteins is a crucial step for host cell infection by the virus. Without it, the entire virion entrance mechanism is compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of various natural product classes, including flavonoids, anthraquinones, saponins, ivermectin, chloroquine, and erythromycin, to modulate this interaction. To accomplish this, we applied a recently developed a microfluidic diffusional sizing (MDS) technique that allows us to probe protein-protein interactions via measurements of the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and dissociation constant (KD); the evolution of Rh is monitored in the presence of increasing concentrations of the partner protein (ACE2); and the KD is determined through a binding curve experimental design. In a second time, with the protein partners present in equimolar amounts, the Rh of the protein complex was measured in the presence of different natural products. Five of the nine natural products/extracts tested were found to modulate the formation of the protein complex. A methanol extract of Chenopodium quinoa Willd bitter seed husks (50 µg/mL; bisdesmoside saponins) and the flavonoid naringenin (1 µM) were particularly effective. This rapid selection of effective modulators will allow us to better understand agents that may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Elkaeed et al., Computer-assisted drug discovery of potential natural inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase through a multi-phase in silico approach, Antiviral Therapy, doi:10.1177/13596535231199838
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant loss of life and economic disruption worldwide. Currently, there are limited effective treatments available for this disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (SARS-CoV-2 RdRp) has been identified as a potential target for drug development against COVID-19. Natural products have been shown to possess antiviral properties, making them a promising source for developing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Objectives The objective of this study is to identify the most effective natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp among a set of 4924 African natural products using a multi-phase in silico approach. Methods The study utilized remdesivir (RTP), the co-crystallized ligand of RdRp, as a starting point to select compounds that have the most similar chemical structures among the examined set of compounds. Molecular fingerprints and structure similarity studies were carried out in the first part of the study. The second part of the study included molecular docking against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp (PDB ID: 7BV2) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations including the calculation of RMSD, RMSF, Rg, SASA, hydrogen bonding, and PLIP. Moreover, the calculations of Molecular mechanics with generalised Born and surface area solvation (MM-GBSA) Lennard-Jones and Columbic electrostatic interaction energies have been conducted. Additionally, in silico ADMET and toxicity studies were performed to examine the drug likeness degrees of the selected compounds. Results Eight compounds were identified as the most effective natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. These compounds are kaempferol 3-galactoside, kaempferol 3- O- β-D-glucopyranoside, mangiferin methyl ether, luteolin 7- O- β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin- O- β-D-3-glucopyranoside, 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate, naringenin, and asphodelin A 4’- O- β-D-glucopyranoside. Conclusion The results of this study provide valuable information for the development of natural product-based drugs against COVID-19. However, the elected compounds should be further studied in vitro and in vivo to confirm their efficacy in treating COVID-19.
Low et al., COVID-19 Therapeutic Potential of Natural Products, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24119589
Despite the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and management are now considerably regulated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component), have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Their abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and readily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.
Fan et al., Pharmaceutical approaches for COVID-19: An update on current therapeutic opportunities, Acta Pharmaceutica, doi:10.2478/acph-2023-0014
Abstract SARS-CoV-2, a newly discovered coronavirus, has been linked to the COVID-19 pandemic and is currently an important public health issue. Despite all the work done to date around the world, there is still no viable treatment for COVID-19. This study examined the most recent evidence on the efficacy and safety of several therapeutic options available including natural substances, synthetic drugs and vaccines in the treatment of COVID-19. Various natural compounds such as sarsapogenin, lycorine, biscoclaurine, vitamin B12, glycyrrhizic acid, riboflavin, resveratrol and kaempferol, various vaccines and drugs such as AZD1222, mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Sputnik V, and remdesivir, lopinavir, favipiravir, darunavir, oseltamivir, and umifenovir, resp., have been discussed comprehensively. We attempted to provide exhaustive information regarding the various prospective therapeutic approaches available in order to assist researchers and physicians in treating COVID-19 patients.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
Khaerunnisa et al., Potential Inhibitor of COVID-19 Main Protease (M<sup>pro</sup>) From Several Medicinal Plant Compounds by Molecular Docking Study, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1
COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus (CoV), was identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019. No specific therapies are available and investigations regarding COVID-19 treatment are lacking. Liu et al. (2020) successfully crystallised the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), which is a potential drug target. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2, with the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, to analyse the probability of docking. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with several compounds, and docking was analysed by Autodock 4.2, Pymol version Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Nelfinavir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand, nelfinavir, lopinavir, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, epicatechin-gallate, zingerol, gingerol, and allicin were -8.37, -10.72, -9.41, -8.58, -8.47, -8.17, -7.99, -7.89, -7.83, -7.31, -7.05, -7.24, -6.67, -5.40, -5.38, and -4.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, nelfinavir and lopinavir may represent potential treatment options, and kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, and epicatechin-gallate appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in &gt; 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Flores-Félix et al., Consumption of Phenolic-Rich Food and Dietary Supplements as a Key Tool in SARS-CoV-19 Infection, Foods, doi:10.3390/foods10092084
The first cases of COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2, were reported in December 2019. The vertiginous worldwide expansion of SARS-CoV-2 caused the collapse of health systems in several countries due to the high severity of the COVID-19. In addition to the vaccines, the search for active compounds capable of preventing and/or fighting the infection has been the main direction of research. Since the beginning of this pandemic, some evidence has highlighted the importance of a phenolic-rich diet as a strategy to reduce the progression of this disease, including the severity of the symptoms. Some of these compounds (e.g., curcumin, gallic acid or quercetin) already showed capacity to limit the infection of viruses by inhibiting entry into the cell through its binding to protein Spike, regulating the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, disrupting the replication in cells by inhibition of viral proteases, and/or suppressing and modulating the host’s immune response. Therefore, this review intends to discuss the most recent findings on the potential of phenolics to prevent SARS-CoV-2.
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