Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption

Luteolin for COVID-19

Luteolin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Munafò et al., Quercetin and Luteolin Are Single-digit Micromolar Inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase, Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly become a global health pandemic. Among the viral proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible for viral genome replication and has emerged as one of the most promising targets for pharmacological intervention against SARS-CoV-2. To this end, we experimentally tested luteolin and quercetin for their ability to inhibit the RdRp enzyme. These two compounds are ancestors of flavonoid natural compounds known for a variety of basal pharmacological activities. Luteolin and quercetin returned a single-digit IC50 of 4.6 µM and 6.9 µM, respectively. Then, through dynamic docking simulations, we identified possible binding modes of these compounds to a recently published cryo-EM structure of RdRp. Collectively, these data indicate that these two compounds are a valid starting point for further optimization and development of a new class of RdRp inhibitors to treat SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other viral infections.
Yang et al., In silico evidence implicating novel mechanisms of Prunella vulgaris L. as a potential botanical drug against COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury, Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2023.1188086
COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury (COVID-19 AKI) is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality and has the potential to progress to chronic kidney disease. Prunella vulgaris L., a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for the treatment of a variety of kidney diseases for centuries, could have the potential to treat this complication. In this study, we studied the potential protective role of Prunella vulgaris in COVID-19 AKI and explored its specific mechanisms applied by network pharmacology and bioinformatics methods. The combination of the protein-protein interaction network and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment -target gene network revealed eight key target genes (VEGFA, ICAM1, IL6, CXCL8, IL1B, CCL2, IL10 and RELA). Molecular docking showed that all these eight gene-encoded proteins could be effectively bound to three major active compounds (quercetin, luteolin and kaempferol), thus becoming potential therapeutic targets. Molecular dynamics simulation also supports the binding stability of RELA-encoded protein with quercetin and luteolin. Together, our data suggest that IL6, VEGFA, and RELA could be the potential drug targets by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our in silico studies shed new insights into P. vulgaris and its ingredients, e.g., quercetin, as potential botanical drugs against COVID-19 AKI, and warrant further studies on efficacy and mechanisms.
Wang et al., Inflammasomes: a rising star on the horizon of COVID-19 pathophysiology, Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1185233
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a contagious respiratory virus that is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which has posed a serious threat to public health. COVID-19 is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to mild cold-like symptoms, severe pneumonia or even death. Inflammasomes are supramolecular signaling platforms that assemble in response to danger or microbial signals. Upon activation, inflammasomes mediate innate immune defense by favoring the release of proinflammatory cytokines and triggering pyroptotic cell death. Nevertheless, abnormalities in inflammasome functioning can result in a variety of human diseases such as autoimmune disorders and cancer. A growing body of evidence has showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce inflammasome assembly. Dysregulated inflammasome activation and consequent cytokine burst have been associated with COVID-19 severity, alluding to the implication of inflammasomes in COVID-19 pathophysiology. Accordingly, an improved understanding of inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cascades in COVID-19 is essential to uncover the immunological mechanisms of COVID-19 pathology and identify effective therapeutic approaches for this devastating disease. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and inflammasomes and the contribution of activated inflammasomes to COVID-19 progression. We dissect the mechanisms involving the inflammasome machinery in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. In addition, we provide an overview of inflammasome-targeted therapies or antagonists that have potential clinical utility in COVID-19 treatment.
Akanchise et al., Ginkgo Biloba and Long COVID: In Vivo and In Vitro Models for the Evaluation of Nanotherapeutic Efficacy, Pharmaceutics, doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics15051562
Coronavirus infections are neuroinvasive and can provoke injury to the central nervous system (CNS) and long-term illness consequences. They may be associated with inflammatory processes due to cellular oxidative stress and an imbalanced antioxidant system. The ability of phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, such as Ginkgo biloba, to alleviate neurological complications and brain tissue damage has attracted strong ongoing interest in the neurotherapeutic management of long COVID. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb) contains several bioactive ingredients, e.g., bilobalide, quercetin, ginkgolides A–C, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and luteolin. They have various pharmacological and medicinal effects, including memory and cognitive improvement. Ginkgo biloba, through its anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities, impacts cognitive function and other illness conditions like those in long COVID. While preclinical research on the antioxidant therapies for neuroprotection has shown promising results, clinical translation remains slow due to several challenges (e.g., low drug bioavailability, limited half-life, instability, restricted delivery to target tissues, and poor antioxidant capacity). This review emphasizes the advantages of nanotherapies using nanoparticle drug delivery approaches to overcome these challenges. Various experimental techniques shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress response in the nervous system and help comprehend the pathophysiology of the neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To develop novel therapeutic agents and drug delivery systems, several methods for mimicking oxidative stress conditions have been used (e.g., lipid peroxidation products, mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors, and models of ischemic brain damage). We hypothesize the beneficial effects of EGb in the neurotherapeutic management of long-term COVID-19 symptoms, evaluated using either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models of oxidative stress.
Srivastava et al., A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Nguyen et al., The Potential of Ameliorating COVID-19 and Sequelae From Andrographis paniculata via Bioinformatics, Bioinformatics and Biology Insights, doi:10.1177/11779322221149622
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is alarmingly escalating and raises challenges in finding efficient compounds for treatment. Repurposing phytochemicals in herbs is an ideal and economical approach for screening potential herbal components against COVID-19. Andrographis paniculata, also known as Chuan Xin Lian, has traditionally been used as an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial herb for centuries and has recently been classified as a promising herbal remedy for adjuvant therapy in treating respiratory diseases. This study aimed to screen Chuan Xin Lian’s bioactive components and elicit the potential pharmacological mechanisms and plausible pathways for treating COVID-19 using network pharmacology combined with molecular docking. The results found terpenoid (andrographolide) and flavonoid (luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, and wogonin) derivatives had remarkable potential against COVID-19 and sequelae owing to their high degrees in the component-target-pathway network and strong binding capacities in docking scores. In addition, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway might be the most vital molecular pathway in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and long-term sequelae whereby therapeutic strategies can intervene.
Giordano et al., Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity and Their Possible Roles in SARS-CoV-2 Treatment: An Overview, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062470
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. Many studies have investigated the biological functions of secondary metabolites and reported evidence of antiviral activities. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we performed a comprehensive analysis of studies through in silico and in vitro investigations, also including in vivo applications and clinical trials, to evaluate the state of knowledge on the antiviral activities of secondary metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a particular focus on natural compounds present in food plants. Although some of the food plant secondary metabolites seem to be useful in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against SARS-CoV-2, up to now, no molecules can be used as a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, more research is needed.
England et al., Plants as Biofactories for Therapeutic Proteins and Antiviral Compounds to Combat COVID-19, Life, doi:10.3390/life13030617
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a profound impact on the world’s health and economy. Although the end of the pandemic may come in 2023, it is generally believed that the virus will not be completely eradicated. Most likely, the disease will become an endemicity. The rapid development of vaccines of different types (mRNA, subunit protein, inactivated virus, etc.) and some other antiviral drugs (Remdesivir, Olumiant, Paxlovid, etc.) has provided effectiveness in reducing COVID-19’s impact worldwide. However, the circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus has been constantly mutating with the emergence of multiple variants, which makes control of COVID-19 difficult. There is still a pressing need for developing more effective antiviral drugs to fight against the disease. Plants have provided a promising production platform for both bioactive chemical compounds (small molecules) and recombinant therapeutics (big molecules). Plants naturally produce a diverse range of bioactive compounds as secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, terpenoids/terpenes and polyphenols, which are a rich source of countless antiviral compounds. Plants can also be genetically engineered to produce valuable recombinant therapeutics. This molecular farming in plants has an unprecedented opportunity for developing vaccines, antibodies, and other biologics for pandemic diseases because of its potential advantages, such as low cost, safety, and high production volume. This review summarizes the latest advancements in plant-derived drugs used to combat COVID-19 and discusses the prospects and challenges of the plant-based production platform for antiviral agents.
Yang et al., A Comprehensive Review of Natural Flavonoids with Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28062735
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has majorly impacted public health and economies worldwide. Although several effective vaccines and drugs are now used to prevent and treat COVID-19, natural products, especially flavonoids, showed great therapeutic potential early in the pandemic and thus attracted particular attention. Quercetin, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), and luteolin are among the most studied flavonoids in this field. Flavonoids can directly or indirectly exert antiviral activities, such as the inhibition of virus invasion and the replication and inhibition of viral proteases. In addition, flavonoids can modulate the levels of interferon and proinflammatory factors. We have reviewed the previously reported relevant literature researching the pharmacological anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of flavonoids where structures, classifications, synthetic pathways, and pharmacological effects are summarized. There is no doubt that flavonoids have great potential in the treatment of COVID-19. However, most of the current research is still in the theoretical stage. More studies are recommended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.
Trivedi et al., Antiviral and Anti-Inflammatory Plant-Derived Bioactive Compounds and Their Potential Use in the Treatment of COVID-19-Related Pathologies, Journal of Xenobiotics, doi:10.3390/jox12040020
The highly contagious coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic and public health emergency as it has taken the lives of over 5.7 million in more than 180 different countries. This disease is characterized by respiratory tract symptoms, such as dry cough and shortness of breath, as well as other symptoms, including fever, chills, and fatigue. COVID-19 is also characterized by the excessive release of cytokines causing inflammatory injury to the lungs and other organs. It is advised to undergo precautionary measures, such as vaccination, social distancing, use of masks, hygiene, and a healthy diet. This review is aimed at summarizing the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and potential biologically active compounds (bioactive) found in plants and plant food. We conclude that many plant food bioactive compounds exhibit antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties and support in attenuating organ damage due to reduced cytokine release and improving the recovery process from COVID-19 infection.
Heleno et al., Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in > 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Shahhamzehei et al., In Silico and In Vitro Identification of Pan-Coronaviral Main Protease Inhibitors from a Large Natural Product Library, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15030308
The main protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) in coronaviruses represents a promising specific drug target as it is essential for the cleavage of the virus polypeptide and has a unique cleavage site that does not exist in human host proteases. In this study, we explored potential natural pan-coronavirus drugs using in vitro and in silico approaches and three coronavirus main proteases as treatment targets. The PyRx program was used to screen 39,442 natural-product-like compounds from the ZINC database and 121 preselected phytochemicals from medicinal plants with known antiviral activity. After assessment with Lipinski’s rule of five, molecular docking was performed for the top 33 compounds of both libraries. Enzymatic assays were applied for the top candidates from both in silico approaches to test their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The four compounds (hypericin, rosmarinic acid, isorhamnetin, and luteolin) that most efficiently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in vitro were further tested for their efficacy in inhibiting Mpro of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. Microscale thermophoresis was performed to determine dissociation constant (Kd) values to validate the binding of these active compounds to recombinant Mpro proteins of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV. The cytotoxicity of hypericin, rosmarinic acid, isorhamnetin, and luteolin was assessed in human diploid MRC-5 lung fibroblasts using the resazurin cell viability assay to determine their therapeutic indices. Sequence alignment of Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated 96.08%, 50.83%, 49.17%, 48.51%, 44.04%, and 41.06% similarity to Mpro of other human-pathogenic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E, respectively). Molecular docking showed that 12 out of 121 compounds were bound to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro at the same binding site as the control inhibitor, GC376. Enzyme inhibition assays revealed that hypericin, rosmarinic acid, isorhamnetin, and luteolin inhibited Mpro of SARS-CoV-2, while hypericin and isorhamnetin inhibited Mpro of SARS-CoV-1; hypericin showed inhibitory effects toward Mpro of MERS-CoV. Microscale thermophoresis confirmed the binding of these compounds to Mpro with high affinity. Resazurin assays showed that rosmarinic acid and luteolin were not cytotoxic toward MRC-5 cells, whereas hypericin and isorhamnetin were slightly cytotoxic. We demonstrated that hypericin represents a potential novel pan-anti-coronaviral agent by binding to and inhibiting Mpro of several human-pathogenic coronaviruses. Moreover, isorhamnetin showed inhibitory effects toward SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 Mpro, indicating that this compound may have some pan-coronaviral potential. Luteolin had inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.