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Loratadine for COVID-19

Loratadine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Oh et al., Network Pharmacology Study to Elucidate the Key Targets of Underlying Antihistamines against COVID-19, Current Issues in Molecular Biology, doi:10.3390/cimb44040109
Antihistamines have potent efficacy to alleviate COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) symptoms such as anti-inflammation and as a pain reliever. However, the pharmacological mechanism(s), key target(s), and drug(s) are not documented well against COVID-19. Thus, we investigated to decipher the most significant components and how its research methodology was utilized by network pharmacology. The list of 32 common antihistamines on the market were retrieved via drug browsing databases. The targets associated with the selected antihistamines and the targets that responded to COVID-19 infection were identified by the Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA), SwissTargetPrediction (STP), and PubChem, respectively. We described bubble charts, the Pathways-Targets-Antihistamines (PTA) network, and the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network on the RPackage via STRING database. Furthermore, we utilized the AutoDock Tools software to perform molecular docking tests (MDT) on the key targets and drugs to evaluate the network pharmacological perspective. The final 15 targets were identified as core targets, indicating that Neuroactive ligand–receptor interaction might be the hub-signaling pathway of antihistamines on COVID-19 via bubble chart. The PTA network was constructed by the RPackage, which identified 7 pathways, 11 targets, and 30 drugs. In addition, GRIN2B, a key target, was identified via topological analysis of the PPI network. Finally, we observed that the GRIN2B-Loratidine complex was the most stable docking score with −7.3 kcal/mol through molecular docking test. Our results showed that Loratadine might exert as an antagonist on GRIN2B via the neuroactive ligand–receptor interaction pathway. To sum up, we elucidated the most potential antihistamine, a key target, and a key pharmacological pathway as alleviating components against COVID-19, supporting scientific evidence for further research.
Yu et al., The histamine receptor H1 acts as an alternative receptor for SARS-CoV-2, mBio, doi:10.1128/mbio.01088-24
ABSTRACT Numerous host factors, in addition to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), have been identified as coreceptors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), demonstrating broad viral tropism and diversified druggable potential. We and others have found that antihistamine drugs, particularly histamine receptor H1 (HRH1) antagonists, potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we provided compelling evidence that HRH1 acts as an alternative receptor for SARS-CoV-2 by directly binding to the viral spike protein. HRH1 also synergistically enhanced hACE2-dependent viral entry by interacting with hACE2. Antihistamine drugs effectively prevent viral infection by competitively binding to HRH1, thereby disrupting the interaction between the spike protein and its receptor. Multiple inhibition assays revealed that antihistamine drugs broadly inhibited the infection of various SARS-CoV-2 mutants with an average IC50 of 2.4 µM. The prophylactic function of these drugs was further confirmed by authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection assays and humanized mouse challenge experiments, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of antihistamine drugs for combating coronavirus disease 19. IMPORTANCE In addition to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can utilize alternative cofactors to facilitate viral entry. In this study, we discovered that histamine receptor H1 (HRH1) not only functions as an independent receptor for SARS-CoV-2 but also synergistically enhances ACE2-dependent viral entry by directly interacting with ACE2. Further studies have demonstrated that HRH1 facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 by directly binding to the N-terminal domain of the spike protein. Conversely, antihistamine drugs, primarily HRH1 antagonists, can competitively bind to HRH1 and thereby prevent viral entry. These findings revealed that the administration of repurposable antihistamine drugs could be a therapeutic intervention to combat coronavirus disease 19.
unknown, u., Effectiveness of antihistamines in COVID-19 symptoms: a systematic review studyEffectiveness of Antihistamines in COVID-19 Symptoms: A Systematic Review, Jundishapur Journal of Sciences, doi:10.32592/JSMJ.22.6.800
Background and Objectives This study was aimed to determine the effect of antihistamines on Covid-19 disease. Subjects and Methods Two researchers searched online electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar from the beginning of the pandemic until December 30, 2022 using Mesh and keywords such as: "SARS-CoV-2" or "COVID-19" and "Antihistamine". Results The results depicted that levocetirizine, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, azelastine, dexchlorpheniramine, cetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, triprolidine, dimetindene, and famotidine are effective in treating and reducing the symptoms of Covid-19. Among them, famotidine had contradictory results, and although it may be a useful supplement in the treatment of covid-19, laboratory studies have failed to show the direct role of famotidine in controlling this disease. Conclusion From the above-discussed findings regarding antihistamines and Covid-19, specific antihistamines should be identified and included as an essential therapeutic approach for the management of Covid-19 alongside other approaches. In fact, antihistamines appear to be promising in the management of Covid-19 with a short time to relieve symptoms while giving the body enough time to reset its defense mechanism, thus reaching a rapid recovery. They work by both modulating histamine pathways and suppressing virus growth. Despite the fact that more trials and clinical studies still need to be done on the identification and deployment of potential antihistamines in the management of Covid-19, there is not enough time for this given the enormous threat of this global health crisis. Selective antihistamines, particularly histamine H1 receptor antagonists, should now be approved for emergency use for the management of Covid-19.
Alkafaas et al., Molecular docking as a tool for the discovery of novel insight about the role of acid sphingomyelinase inhibitors in SARS- CoV-2 infectivity, BMC Public Health, doi:10.1186/s12889-024-17747-z
AbstractRecently, COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, caused > 6 million deaths. Symptoms included respiratory strain and complications, leading to severe pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 attaches to the ACE-2 receptor of the host cell membrane to enter. Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 entry may effectively inhibit infection. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is a lysosomal protein that catalyzes the conversion of sphingolipid (sphingomyelin) to ceramide. Ceramide molecules aggregate/assemble on the plasma membrane to form “platforms” that facilitate the viral intake into the cell. Impairing the ASMase activity will eventually disrupt viral entry into the cell. In this review, we identified the metabolism of sphingolipids, sphingolipids' role in cell signal transduction cascades, and viral infection mechanisms. Also, we outlined ASMase structure and underlying mechanisms inhibiting viral entry 40 with the aid of inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs). In silico molecular docking analyses of FIASMAs with inhibitors revealed that dilazep (S = − 12.58 kcal/mol), emetine (S = − 11.65 kcal/mol), pimozide (S = − 11.29 kcal/mol), carvedilol (S = − 11.28 kcal/mol), mebeverine (S = − 11.14 kcal/mol), cepharanthine (S = − 11.06 kcal/mol), hydroxyzin (S = − 10.96 kcal/mol), astemizole (S = − 10.81 kcal/mol), sertindole (S = − 10.55 kcal/mol), and bepridil (S = − 10.47 kcal/mol) have higher inhibition activity than the candidate drug amiodarone (S = − 10.43 kcal/mol), making them better options for inhibition.
Farag et al., Identification of FDA Approved Drugs Targeting COVID-19 Virus by Structure-Based Drug Repositioning, American Chemical Society (ACS), doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12003930.v1
The new strain of Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2), and the resulting Covid-19 disease has spread swiftly across the globe after its initial detection in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China, resulting in a pandemic status declaration by WHO within 3 months. Given the heavy toll of this pandemic, researchers are actively testing various strategies including new and repurposed drugs as well as vaccines. In the current brief report, we adopted a repositioning approach using insilico molecular modeling screening using FDA approved drugs with established safety profiles for potential inhibitory effects on Covid-19 virus. We started with structure based drug design by screening more than 2000 FDA approved drugsagainst Covid-19 virus main protease enzyme (Mpro) substrate-binding pocket to identify potential hits based on their binding energies, binding modes, interacting amino acids, and therapeutic indications. In addition, we elucidate preliminary pharmacophore features for candidates bound to Covid-19 virus Mpro substratebinding pocket. The top hits include anti-viral drugs such as Darunavir, Nelfinavirand Saquinavir, some of which are already being tested in Covid-19 patients. Interestingly, one of the most promising hits in our screen is the hypercholesterolemia drug Rosuvastatin. These results certainly do not confirm or indicate antiviral activity, but can rather be used as a starting point for further in vitro and in vivo testing, either individually or in combination.
Ellinger et al., Identification of inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro cellular toxicity in human (Caco-2) cells using a large scale drug repurposing collection, Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Abstract To identify possible candidates for progression towards clinical studies against SARS-CoV-2, we screened a well-defined collection of 5632 compounds including 3488 compounds which have undergone clinical investigations (marketed drugs, phases 1 -3, and withdrawn) across 600 indications. Compounds were screened for their inhibition of viral induced cytotoxicity using the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 and a SARS-CoV-2 isolate. The primary screen of 5632 compounds gave 271 hits. A total of 64 compounds with IC50 <20 µM were identified, including 19 compounds with IC50 < 1 µM. Of this confirmed hit population, 90% have not yet been previously reported as active against SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro cell assays. Some 37 of the actives are launched drugs, 19 are in phases 1-3 and 10 pre-clinical. Several inhibitors were associated with modulation of host pathways including kinase signaling P53 activation, ubiquitin pathways and PDE activity modulation, with long chain acyl transferases were effective viral inhibitors.
Ellinger et al., A SARS-CoV-2 cytopathicity dataset generated by high-content screening of a large drug repurposing collection, Scientific Data, doi:10.1038/s41597-021-00848-4
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, in which acute respiratory infections are associated with high socio-economic burden. We applied high-content screening to a well-defined collection of 5632 compounds including 3488 that have undergone previous clinical investigations across 600 indications. The compounds were screened by microscopy for their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 cytopathicity in the human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. The primary screen identified 258 hits that inhibited cytopathicity by more than 75%, most of which were not previously known to be active against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. These compounds were tested in an eight-point dose response screen using the same image-based cytopathicity readout. For the 67 most active molecules, cytotoxicity data were generated to confirm activity against SARS-CoV-2. We verified the ability of known inhibitors camostat, nafamostat, lopinavir, mefloquine, papaverine and cetylpyridinium to reduce the cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2, providing confidence in the validity of the assay. The high-content screening data are suitable for reanalysis across numerous drug classes and indications and may yield additional insights into SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies.
Monserrat Villatoro et al., A Case-Control of Patients with COVID-19 to Explore the Association of Previous Hospitalisation Use of Medication on the Mortality of COVID-19 Disease: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis, Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15010078
Data from several cohorts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suggest that the most common comorbidities for severe COVID-19 disease are the elderly, high blood pressure, and diabetes; however, it is not currently known whether the previous use of certain drugs help or hinder recovery. This study aims to explore the association of previous hospitalisation use of medication on the mortality of COVID-19 disease. A retrospective case-control from two hospitals in Madrid, Spain, included all patients aged 18 years or above hospitalised with a diagnosis of COVID-19. A Propensity Score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. Confounding variables were considered to be age, sex, and the number of comorbidities. Finally, 3712 patients were included. Of these, 687 (18.5%) patients died (cases). The 22,446 medicine trademarks used previous to admission were classified according to the ATC, obtaining 689 final drugs; all of them were included in PSM analysis. Eleven drugs displayed a reduction in mortality: azithromycin, bemiparine, budesonide-formoterol fumarate, cefuroxime, colchicine, enoxaparin, ipratropium bromide, loratadine, mepyramine theophylline acetate, oral rehydration salts, and salbutamol sulphate. Eight final drugs displayed an increase in mortality: acetylsalicylic acid, digoxin, folic acid, mirtazapine, linagliptin, enalapril, atorvastatin, and allopurinol. Medication associated with survival (anticoagulants, antihistamines, azithromycin, bronchodilators, cefuroxime, colchicine, and inhaled corticosteroids) may be candidates for future clinical trials. Drugs associated with mortality show an interaction with the underlying conditions.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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