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Interferon beta-1b for COVID-19

Interferon beta-1b has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Tsai et al., Translating GWAS Findings to Inform Drug Repositioning Strategies for COVID-19 Treatment, Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-3443080/v1
Abstract We developed a computational framework that integrates Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS analyses, designed to facilitate drug repurposing for COVID-19 treatment. The comprehensive approach combines transcriptomic-wide associations, polygenic priority scoring, 3D genomics, viral-host protein-protein interactions, and small-molecule docking. Through GWAS, we identified nine druggable host genes associated with COVID-19 severity and SARS-CoV-2 infection, all of which show differential expression in COVID-19 patients. These genes include IFNAR1, IFNAR2, TYK2, IL10RB, CXCR6, CCR9, and OAS1. We performed an extensive molecular docking analysis of these targets using 553 small molecules derived from five therapeutically enriched categories, namely antibacterials, antivirals, antineoplastics, immunosuppressants, and anti-inflammatories. This analysis, which comprised over 20,000 individual docking analyses, enabled the identification of several promising drug candidates. All results are available via the DockCoV2 database (https://dockcov2.org/drugs/). The computational framework ultimately identified nine potential drug candidates: Peginterferon alfa-2b, Interferon alfa-2b, Interferon beta-1b, Ruxolitinib, Dactinomycin, Rolitetracycline, Irinotecan, Vinblastine, and Oritavancin. While its current focus is on COVID-19, our proposed computational framework can be applied more broadly to assist in drug repurposing efforts for a variety of diseases. Overall, this study underscores the potential of human genetic studies and the utility of a computational framework for drug repurposing in the context of COVID-19 treatment, providing a valuable resource for researchers in this field.
Ma et al., Integration of human organoids single‐cell transcriptomic profiles and human genetics repurposes critical cell type‐specific drug targets for severe COVID‐19, Cell Proliferation, doi:10.1111/cpr.13558
AbstractHuman organoids recapitulate the cell type diversity and function of their primary organs holding tremendous potentials for basic and translational research. Advances in single‐cell RNA sequencing (scRNA‐seq) technology and genome‐wide association study (GWAS) have accelerated the biological and therapeutic interpretation of trait‐relevant cell types or states. Here, we constructed a computational framework to integrate atlas‐level organoid scRNA‐seq data, GWAS summary statistics, expression quantitative trait loci, and gene–drug interaction data for distinguishing critical cell populations and drug targets relevant to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) severity. We found that 39 cell types across eight kinds of organoids were significantly associated with COVID‐19 outcomes. Notably, subset of lung mesenchymal stem cells increased proximity with fibroblasts predisposed to repair COVID‐19‐damaged lung tissue. Brain endothelial cell subset exhibited significant associations with severe COVID‐19, and this cell subset showed a notable increase in cell‐to‐cell interactions with other brain cell types, including microglia. We repurposed 33 druggable genes, including IFNAR2, TYK2, and VIPR2, and their interacting drugs for COVID‐19 in a cell‐type‐specific manner. Overall, our results showcase that host genetic determinants have cellular‐specific contribution to COVID‐19 severity, and identification of cell type‐specific drug targets may facilitate to develop effective therapeutics for treating severe COVID‐19 and its complications.
Liu et al., DRAVP: A Comprehensive Database of Antiviral Peptides and Proteins, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15040820
Viruses with rapid replication and easy mutation can become resistant to antiviral drug treatment. With novel viral infections emerging, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, novel antiviral therapies are urgently needed. Antiviral proteins, such as interferon, have been used for treating chronic hepatitis C infections for decades. Natural-origin antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins, have also been identified as possessing antiviral activities, including direct antiviral effects and the ability to induce indirect immune responses to viruses. To promote the development of antiviral drugs, we constructed a data repository of antiviral peptides and proteins (DRAVP). The database provides general information, antiviral activity, structure information, physicochemical information, and literature information for peptides and proteins. Because most of the proteins and peptides lack experimentally determined structures, AlphaFold was used to predict each antiviral peptide’s structure. A free website for users (http://dravp.cpu-bioinfor.org/, accessed on 30 August 2022) was constructed to facilitate data retrieval and sequence analysis. Additionally, all the data can be accessed from the web interface. The DRAVP database aims to be a useful resource for developing antiviral drugs.
Issac et al., Improved And Optimized Drug Repurposing For The SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.24.485618
The active global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused more than 426 million cases and 5.8 million deaths worldwide. The development of completely new drugs for such a novel disease is a challenging, time intensive process. Despite researchers around the world working on this task, no effective treatments have been developed yet. This emphasizes the importance of drug repurposing, where treatments are found among existing drugs that are meant for different diseases. A common approach to this is based on \emph{knowledge graphs}, that condense relationships between entities like drugs, diseases and genes. Graph neural networks (GNNs) can then be used for the task at hand by predicting links in such knowledge graphs. Expanding on state-of-the-art GNN research, Doshi {\sl et al.} recently developed the \drcov \ model. We further extend their work using additional output interpretation strategies. The best aggregation strategy derives a top-100 ranking of 8,070 candidate drugs, 32 of which are currently being tested in COVID-19-related clinical trials. Moreover, we present an alternative application for the model, the generation of additional candidates based on a given pre-selection of drug candidates using collaborative filtering. In addition, we improved the implementation of the \drcov \ model by significantly shortening the inference and pre-processing time by exploiting data-parallelism. As drug repurposing is a task that requires high computation and memory resources, we further accelerate the post-processing phase using a new emerging hardware --- we propose a new approach to leverage the use of high-capacity Non-Volatile Memory for aggregate drug ranking.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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