Imatinib for COVID-19
Imatinib has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
The role of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-023-01580-8 ,
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), showing high infectiousness, resulted in an ongoing pandemic termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 cases often experience acute respiratory distress syndrome, which has caused millions of deaths. Apart from triggering inflammatory and immune responses, many viral infections can cause programmed cell death in infected cells. Cell death mechanisms have a vital role in maintaining a suitable environment to achieve normal cell functionality. Nonetheless, these processes are dysregulated, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. Over the past decades, multiple cell death pathways are becoming better understood. Growing evidence suggests that the induction of cell death by the coronavirus may significantly contributes to viral infection and pathogenicity. However, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with cell death, together with its associated mechanisms, is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence concerning the molecular modulation of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as viral-host interactions, which may shed new light on antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2.
Drug repurposing for COVID-19: current evidence from randomized controlled adaptive platform trials and living systematic reviews, British Medical Bulletin, doi:10.1093/bmb/ldac037 ,
Abstract Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in a race to develop effective treatments largely through drug repurposing via adaptive platform trials on a global scale. Drug repurposing trials have focused on potential antiviral therapies aimed at preventing viral replication, anti-inflammatory agents, antithrombotic agents and immune modulators through a number of adaptive platform trials. Living systematic reviews have also enabled evidence synthesis and network meta-analysis as clinical trial data emerge globally. Sources of data Recent published literature. Areas of agreement Corticosteroids and immunomodulators that antagonize the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor have been shown to play a critical role in modulating inflammation and improving clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients. Inhaled budesonide reduces the time to recovery in older patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 managed in the community. Areas of controversy The clinical benefit of remdesivir remains controversial with conflicting evidence from different trials. Remdesivir led to a reduction in time to clinical recovery in the ACTT-1 trial. However, the World Health Organization SOLIDARITY and DISCOVERY trial did not find a significant benefit on 28-day mortality and clinical recovery. Growing points Other treatments currently being investigated include antidiabetic drug empagliflozin, antimalarial drug artesunate, tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, immunomodulatory drug infliximab, antiviral drug favipiravir, antiparasitic drug ivermectin and antidepressant drug fluvoxamine. Areas timely for developing research The timing of therapeutic interventions based on postulated mechanisms of action and the selection of clinically meaningful primary end points remain important considerations in the design and implementation of COVID-19 therapeutic trials.
A comprehensive review on the global efforts on vaccines and repurposed drugs for combating COVID-19, European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2023.115719 ,
Different drug approaches to COVID-19 treatment worldwide: an update of new drugs and drugs repositioning to fight against the novel coronavirus, Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy, doi:10.1177/25151355221144845 ,
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the second half of 2022, there are about 606 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and almost 6,500,000 deaths around the world. A pandemic was declared by the WHO in March 2020 when the new coronavirus spread around the world. The short time between the first cases in Wuhan and the declaration of a pandemic initiated the search for ways to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or to attempt to cure the disease COVID-19. More than ever, research groups are developing vaccines, drugs, and immunobiological compounds, and they are even trying to repurpose drugs in an increasing number of clinical trials. There are great expectations regarding the vaccine’s effectiveness for the prevention of COVID-19. However, producing sufficient doses of vaccines for the entire population and SARS-CoV-2 variants are challenges for pharmaceutical industries. On the contrary, efforts have been made to create different vaccines with different approaches so that they can be used by the entire population. Here, we summarize about 8162 clinical trials, showing a greater number of drug clinical trials in Europe and the United States and less clinical trials in low-income countries. Promising results about the use of new drugs and drug repositioning, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells to control viral infection/replication or the hyper-inflammatory response to the new coronavirus bring hope to treat the disease.
Repurposing Drugs for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Its Cardiovascular Manifestations, Circulation Research, doi:10.1161/circresaha.122.321879 ,
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 leading to the ongoing global pandemic. Infected patients developed a range of respiratory symptoms, including respiratory failure, as well as other extrapulmonary complications. Multiple comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney diseases, are associated with the severity and increased mortality of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection also causes a range of cardiovascular complications, including myocarditis, myocardial injury, heart failure, arrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolism. Although a variety of methods have been developed and many clinical trials have been launched for drug repositioning for COVID-19, treatments that consider cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular disease comorbidities specifically are limited. In this review, we summarize recent advances in drug repositioning for COVID-19, including experimental drug repositioning, high-throughput drug screening, omics data-based, and network medicine-based computational drug repositioning, with particular attention on those drug treatments that consider cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19. We discuss prospective opportunities and potential methods for repurposing drugs to treat cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.
Repurposing clinically available drugs and therapies for pathogenic targets to combat SARS‐CoV‐2, MedComm, doi:10.1002/mco2.254 ,
In silico investigation of the therapeutic and prophylactic potential of medicinal substances bearing guanidine moieties against COVID-19, Chemical Papers, doi:10.1007/s11696-022-02528-y ,
Therapeutic developments for SARS-CoV-2 infection—Molecular mechanisms of action of antivirals and strategies for mitigating resistance in emerging variants in clinical practice, Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2023.1132501 ,
This article systematically presents the current clinically significant therapeutic developments for the treatment of COVID-19 by providing an in-depth review of molecular mechanisms of action for SARS-CoV-2 antivirals and critically analyzing the potential targets that may allow the selection of resistant viral variants. Two main categories of agents can display antiviral activity: direct-acting antivirals, which act by inhibiting viral enzymes, and host-directed antivirals, which target host cell factors that are involved in steps of the viral life cycle. We discuss both these types of antivirals, highlighting the agents that have already been approved for treatment of COVID-19, and providing an overview of the main molecules that are currently in drug development. Direct-acting antivirals target viral enzymes that are essential in the viral life cycle. Three direct-acting antivirals are currently in use: two are nucleoside analogs that inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., remdesivir and molnupiravir, and the third one, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The potential for induction of viral resistance is discussed for each of these antivirals, along with their clinical activity on each of the SARS-CoV-2 variants and sublineages that have been dominant over the course of the pandemic, i.e., Alpha, Delta, as well as Omicron and its sublineages BA.1, BA.2, BA.5, BQ.1 and XBB. Host-directed antivirals are currently in preclinical or clinical development; these agents target host cell enzymes that are involved in facilitating viral entry, replication, or virion release. By blocking these enzymes, viral replication can theoretically be effectively stopped. As no SARS-CoV-2 host-directed antiviral has been approved so far, further research is still needed and we present the host-directed antivirals that are currently in the pipeline. Another specific type of agents that have been used in the treatment of COVID-19 are neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Their main binding site is the spike protein, and therefore their neutralization activity is influenced by mutations occurring in this region. We discuss the main changes in neutralization activity of NAbs for the most important dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants. Close monitoring of emerging variants and sublineages is still warranted, to better understand the impact of viral mutations on the clinical efficiency of antivirals and neutralizing antibodies developed for the treatment of COVID-19.
Discovery of host-directed modulators of virus infection by probing the SARS-CoV-2–host protein–protein interaction network, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbac456 ,
Abstract The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need to better understand virus–host interactions. We developed a network-based method that expands the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)–host protein interaction network and identifies host targets that modulate viral infection. To disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 interactome, we systematically probed for potent compounds that selectively target the identified host proteins with high expression in cells relevant to COVID-19. We experimentally tested seven chemical inhibitors of the identified host proteins for modulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human cells that express ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Inhibition of the epigenetic regulators bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), along with ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP10), enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such proviral effect was observed upon treatment with compounds JQ1, vorinostat, romidepsin and spautin-1, when measured by cytopathic effect and validated by viral RNA assays, suggesting that the host proteins HDAC2, BRD4 and USP10 have antiviral functions. We observed marked differences in antiviral effects across cell lines, which may have consequences for identification of selective modulators of viral infection or potential antiviral therapeutics. While network-based approaches enable systematic identification of host targets and selective compounds that may modulate the SARS-CoV-2 interactome, further developments are warranted to increase their accuracy and cell-context specificity.
Multi-omics data integration and network-based analysis drives a multiplex drug repurposing approach to a shortlist of candidate drugs against COVID-19, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab114 ,
Abstract The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is undeniably the most severe global health emergency since the 1918 Influenza outbreak. Depending on its evolutionary trajectory, the virus is expected to establish itself as an endemic infectious respiratory disease exhibiting seasonal flare-ups. Therefore, despite the unprecedented rally to reach a vaccine that can offer widespread immunization, it is equally important to reach effective prevention and treatment regimens for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Contributing to this effort, we have curated and analyzed multi-source and multi-omics publicly available data from patients, cell lines and databases in order to fuel a multiplex computational drug repurposing approach. We devised a network-based integration of multi-omic data to prioritize the most important genes related to COVID-19 and subsequently re-rank the identified candidate drugs. Our approach resulted in a highly informed integrated drug shortlist by combining structural diversity filtering along with experts’ curation and drug–target mapping on the depicted molecular pathways. In addition to the recently proposed drugs that are already generating promising results such as dexamethasone and remdesivir, our list includes inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinase (bosutinib, dasatinib, cytarabine and saracatinib), which appear to be involved in multiple COVID-19 pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, we highlight specific immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory drugs like dactolisib and methotrexate and inhibitors of histone deacetylase like hydroquinone and vorinostat with potential beneficial effects in their mechanisms of action. Overall, this multiplex drug repurposing approach, developed and utilized herein specifically for SARS-CoV-2, can offer a rapid mapping and drug prioritization against any pathogen-related disease.
Drug Repurposing Screen for Compounds Inhibiting the Cytopathic Effect of SARS-CoV-2, Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.592737 ,
Drug repurposing is a rapid approach to identify therapeutics for the treatment of emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19. To address the urgent need for treatment options, we carried out a quantitative high-throughput screen using a SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic assay with a compound collection of 8,810 approved and investigational drugs, mechanism-based bioactive compounds, and natural products. Three hundred and nineteen compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities were identified and confirmed, including 91 approved drugs and 49 investigational drugs. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities of 230 of these confirmed compounds, of which 38 are approved drugs, have not been previously reported. Chlorprothixene, methotrimeprazine, and piperacetazine were the three most potent FDA-approved drugs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities. These three compounds have not been previously reported to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities, although their antiviral activities against SARS-CoV and Ebola virus have been reported. These results demonstrate that this comprehensive data set is a useful resource for drug repurposing efforts, including design of new drug combinations for clinical trials for SARS-CoV-2.
Potential Therapeutic Options for COVID-19: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives, Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.572870 ,
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