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Ergotamine for COVID-19

Ergotamine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Sokouti, B., A review on in silico virtual screening methods in COVID-19 using anticancer drugs and other natural/chemical inhibitors, Exploration of Targeted Anti-tumor Therapy, doi:10.37349/etat.2023.00177
The present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic scenario has posed a difficulty for cancer treatment. Even under ideal conditions, malignancies like small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are challenging to treat because of their fast development and early metastases. The treatment of these patients must not be jeopardized, and they must be protected as much as possible from the continuous spread of the COVID-19 infection. Initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the contagious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Finding inhibitors against the druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 has been a significant focus of research efforts across the globe. The primary motivation for using molecular modeling tools against SARS-CoV-2 was to identify candidates for use as therapeutic targets from a pharmacological database. In the published study, scientists used a combination of medication repurposing and virtual drug screening methodologies to target many structures of SARS-CoV-2. This virus plays an essential part in the maturation and replication of other viruses. In addition, the total binding free energy and molecular dynamics (MD) modeling findings showed that the dynamics of various medications and substances were stable; some of them have been tested experimentally against SARS-CoV-2. Different virtual screening (VS) methods have been discussed as potential means by which the evaluated medications that show strong binding to the active site might be repurposed for use against SARS-CoV-2.
Onyango, O., In Silico Models for Anti-COVID-19 Drug Discovery: A Systematic Review, Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1155/2023/4562974
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe worldwide pandemic. Due to the emergence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants and the presence of only one Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-COVID-19 drug (remdesivir), the disease remains a mindboggling global public health problem. Developing anti-COVID-19 drug candidates that are effective against SARS-CoV-2 and its various variants is a pressing need that should be satisfied. This systematic review assesses the existing literature that used in silico models during the discovery procedure of anti-COVID-19 drugs. Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed were used to conduct a literature search to find the relevant articles utilizing the search terms “In silico model,” “COVID-19,” “Anti-COVID-19 drug,” “Drug discovery,” “Computational drug designing,” and “Computer-aided drug design.” Studies published in English between 2019 and December 2022 were included in the systematic review. From the 1120 articles retrieved from the databases and reference lists, only 33 were included in the review after the removal of duplicates, screening, and eligibility assessment. Most of the articles are studies that use SARS-CoV-2 proteins as drug targets. Both ligand-based and structure-based methods were utilized to obtain lead anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. Sixteen articles also assessed absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET), and drug-likeness properties. Confirmation of the inhibitory ability of the candidate leads by in vivo or in vitro assays was reported in only five articles. Virtual screening, molecular docking (MD), and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) emerged as the most commonly utilized in silico models for anti-COVID-19 drug discovery.
Islam et al., Molecular-evaluated and explainable drug repurposing for COVID-19 using ensemble knowledge graph embedding, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-30095-z
AbstractThe search for an effective drug is still urgent for COVID-19 as no drug with proven clinical efficacy is available. Finding the new purpose of an approved or investigational drug, known as drug repurposing, has become increasingly popular in recent years. We propose here a new drug repurposing approach for COVID-19, based on knowledge graph (KG) embeddings. Our approach learns “ensemble embeddings” of entities and relations in a COVID-19 centric KG, in order to get a better latent representation of the graph elements. Ensemble KG-embeddings are subsequently used in a deep neural network trained for discovering potential drugs for COVID-19. Compared to related works, we retrieve more in-trial drugs among our top-ranked predictions, thus giving greater confidence in our prediction for out-of-trial drugs. For the first time to our knowledge, molecular docking is then used to evaluate the predictions obtained from drug repurposing using KG embedding. We show that Fosinopril is a potential ligand for the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 target. We also provide explanations of our predictions thanks to rules extracted from the KG and instanciated by KG-derived explanatory paths. Molecular evaluation and explanatory paths bring reliability to our results and constitute new complementary and reusable methods for assessing KG-based drug repurposing.
Atoum et al., Paving New Roads Using Allium sativum as a Repurposed Drug and Analyzing its Antiviral Action Using Artificial Intelligence Technology, Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.5812/ijpr-131577
Context: The whole universe is facing a coronavirus catastrophe, and prompt treatment for the health crisis is primarily significant. The primary way to improve health conditions in this battle is to boost our immunity and alter our diet patterns. A common bulb veggie used to flavor cuisine is garlic. Compounds in the plant that are physiologically active are present, contributing to its pharmacological characteristics. Among several food items with nutritional value and immunity improvement, garlic stood predominant and more resourceful natural antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antiviral potency against diverse viruses. However, earlier reports have depicted its efficacy in the treatment of a variety of viral illnesses. Nonetheless, there is no information on its antiviral activities and underlying molecular mechanisms. Objectives: The bioactive compounds in garlic include organosulfur (allicin and alliin) and flavonoid (quercetin) compounds. These compounds have shown immunomodulatory effects and inhibited attachment of coronavirus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Further, we have discussed the contradictory impacts of garlic used as a preventive measure against the novel coronavirus. Method: The GC/MS analysis revealed 18 active chemicals, including 17 organosulfur compounds in garlic. Using the molecular docking technique, we report for the first time the inhibitory effect of the under-consideration compounds on the host receptor ACE2 protein in the human body, providing a crucial foundation for understanding individual compound coronavirus resistance on the main protease protein of SARS-CoV-2. Allyl disulfide and allyl trisulfide, which make up the majority of the compounds in garlic, exhibit the most potent activity. Results: Conventional medicine has proven its efficiency from ancient times. Currently, our article's prime spotlight was on the activity of Allium sativum on the relegation of viral load and further highlighted artificial intelligence technology to study the attachment of the allicin compound to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor to reveal its efficacy. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered interest among researchers to conduct future research on molecular docking with clinical trials before releasing salutary remedies against the deadly malady.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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