Epigallocatechin for COVID-19
Epigallocatechin has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), a Green Tea Polyphenol, Reduces Coronavirus Replication in a Mouse Model, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13122533 ,
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge number of deaths from 2020 to 2021; however, effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently under development. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, inhibit coronavirus enzymes as well as coronavirus replication in vitro. Herein, we examined the inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on coronavirus replication in a mouse model. We used epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols containing more than 60% catechin (GTP60) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in virion particle production in infected cells. EGCG and GTP60 treatment reduced coronavirus protein and virus production in the cells. Finally, EGCG- and GTP60-fed mice exhibited reduced levels of coronavirus RNA in mouse lungs. These results demonstrate that green tea polyphenol treatment is effective in decreasing the level of coronavirus in vivo.
Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Proteins, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms241613002 ,
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped respiratory β coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), leading to a deadly pandemic that has claimed millions of lives worldwide. Like other coronaviruses, the SARS-CoV-2 genome also codes for non-structural proteins (NSPs). These NSPs are found within open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and encode NSP1 to NSP11 and NSP12 to NSP16, respectively. This study aimed to collect the available literature regarding NSP inhibitors. In addition, we searched the natural product database looking for similar structures. The results showed that similar structures could be tested as potential inhibitors of the NSPs.
Recent advances towards natural plants as potential inhibitors of SARS-Cov-2 targets, Pharmaceutical Biology, doi:10.1080/13880209.2023.2241518 ,
Assessing the Potential Contribution of in Silico Studies in Discovering Drug Candidates that Interact with Various SARS-CoV-2 Receptors, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0434.v1 ,
COVID-19 pandemic has spurred intense research efforts to identify effective treatments for SARS-CoV-2. In silico studies have emerged as a powerful tool in the drug discovery process, particularly in the search for drug candidates that interact with various SARS-CoV-2 receptors. These studies involve the use of computer simulations and computational algorithms to predict the potential interaction of drug candidates with target receptors. The primary receptors targeted by drug candidates include the RNA polymerase, main protease, spike protein, ACE2 receptor, TMPRSS2, and AP2-associated protein kinase 1. In silico studies have identified several promising drug candidates, including Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Ribavirin, Ivermectin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and Camostat mesylate, among others. The use of in silico studies offers several advantages, including the ability to screen a large number of drug candidates in a relatively short amount of time, thereby reducing the time and cost involved in traditional drug discovery methods. Additionally, in silico studies allow for the prediction of the binding affinity of drug candidates to target receptors, providing insight into their potential efficacy. However, it is crucial to consider both the advantages and limitations of these studies and to complement them with experimental validation to ensure the efficacy and safety of identified drug candidates.
A Comprehensive Update of Various Attempts by Medicinal Chemists to Combat COVID-19 through Natural Products, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules28124860 ,
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global panic because of its continual evolution and recurring spikes. This serious malignancy is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the outbreak, millions of people have been affected from December 2019 till now, which has led to a great surge in finding treatments. Despite trying to handle the pandemic with the repurposing of some drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ivermectin, etc., against COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues its out-of-control spread. There is a dire need to identify a new regimen of natural products to combat the deadly viral disease. This article deals with the literature reports to date of natural products showing inhibitory activity towards SARS-CoV-2 through different approaches, such as in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. Natural compounds targeting the proteins of SARS-CoV-2—the main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), spike proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), endoribonuclease, exoribonuclease, helicase, nucleocapsid, methyltransferase, adeno diphosphate (ADP) phosphatase, other nonstructural proteins, and envelope proteins—were extracted mainly from plants, and some were isolated from bacteria, algae, fungi, and a few marine organisms.
COVID-19 Therapeutic Potential of Natural Products, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms24119589 ,
Despite the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and management are now considerably regulated, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component), have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Their abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and readily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.
Phytochemicals of Hibiscus sabdariffa with Therapeutic Potential against SARS-CoV-2: A Molecular Docking Study, Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, doi:10.21597/jist.1187616 ,
In this study, the possible interactions of 17 phytochemicals that were reported as the most abundant biomolecules of Hibiscus sabdariffa, including many organic acids as well as catechin and quercetin derivatives, with 3CLpro and PLpro proteases of SARS-CoV-2 have been investigated via molecular docking. Caffeoylshikimic acid/3CLpro showed the lowest binding energy (-7.72 kcal/mol) with seven H-bonds. The second-lowest binding energy was computed in the chlorogenic acid/3CLpro complex (-7.18 kcal/mol), which was found to form 6 H-bonds. Also, low binding energies of cianidanol (-7.10 kcal/mol), cryptochlorogenic acid (-6.67 kcal/mol), and kaempferol (-6.82 kcal/mol) were calculated to 3CLpro with several H-bond interactions. Nelfinavir (-10.16 kcal/mol) and remdesivir (-6.40 kcal/mol), which have been used against COVID-19, were obtained to have low binding energies to 3CLpro with 3 H-bond formations each. On the other hand, the nicotiflorin/PLpro complex, which had the lowest binding energy (-7.40 kcal/mol), was found to have only 1 H-bond interaction. The second-lowest binding energy was reported in chlorogenic acid/PLpro (-7.20 kcal/mol), which was found to possess four H-bonds. On the other hand, epigallocatechin gallate/PLpro, which was shown to have a -5.95 kcal/mol binding energy, was found to form 8 H-bond interactions. Furthermore, the quercetin pentosylhexoside/PLpro complex was monitored to have low binding energy (-6.54 kcal/mol) with 9 H-bonds, which stands as the highest number of H-bonds in all complexes. Therefore, several molecules of Hibiscus sabdariffa were found to have strong binding affinity to the main proteases of SARS-CoV-2. This study suggests many compounds, including caffeoylshikimic acid and nicotiflorin, to inhibit 3CLpro and PLpro activities. As a result, numerous chemicals derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa have the potential to be employed therapeutically against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
An overview on medicinal plants used for combating coronavirus: Current potentials and challenges, Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, doi:10.1016/j.jafr.2023.100632 ,
Flavonoid as possible therapeutic targets against COVID-19: a scoping review of in silico studies, DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1007/s40199-023-00461-3 ,
A Brief Review on Medicinal Plants-At-Arms against COVID-19, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2023/7598307 ,
COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has impacted human livelihood globally. Strenuous efforts have been employed for its control and prevention; however, with recent reports on mutated strains with much higher infectivity, transmissibility, and ability to evade immunity developed from previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, prevention alternatives must be prepared beforehand in case. We have perused over 128 recent works (found on Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect as of February 2023) on medicinal plants and their compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and eventually reviewed 102 of them. The clinical application and the curative effect were reported high in China and in India. Accordingly, this review highlights the unprecedented opportunities offered by medicinal plants and their compounds, candidates as the therapeutic agent, against COVID-19 by acting as viral protein inhibitors and immunomodulator in (32 clinical trials and hundreds of in silico experiments) conjecture with modern science. Moreover, the associated foreseeable challenges for their viral outbreak management were discussed in comparison to synthetic drugs.
Identification of promising high-affinity inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease from African Natural Products Databases by Virtual Screening, Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-2673755/v1 ,
Abstract With the rapid spread of the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen agent of COVID-19 pandemic created a serious threat to global public health, requiring the most urgent research for potential therapeutic agents. The availability of genomic data of SARS-CoV-2 and efforts to determine the protein structure of the virus facilitated the identification of potent inhibitors by using structure-based approach and bioinformatics tools. Many pharmaceuticals have been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19, although their effectiveness has not been assessed yet. However, it is important to find out new-targeted drugs to overcome the resistance concern. Several viral proteins such as proteases, polymerases or structural proteins have been considered as potential therapeutic targets. But the virus target must be essential for host invasion match some drugability criterion. In this Work, we selected the highly validated pharmacological target main protease Mpro and we performed high throughput virtual screening of African Natural Products Databases such as NANPDB, EANPDB, AfroDb, and SANCDB to identify the most potent inhibitors with the best pharmacological properties. In total, 8753 natural compounds were virtually screened by AutoDock vina against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Two hundred and five (205) compounds showed high-affinity scores (less than − 10.0 Kcal/mol), while fifty-eight (58) filtered through Lipinski’s rules showed better affinity than known Mpro inhibitors (i.e., ABBV-744, Onalespib, Daunorubicin, Alpha-ketoamide, Perampanel, Carprefen, Celecoxib, Alprazolam, Trovafloxacin, Sarafloxacin, Ethyl biscoumacetate…). Those promising compounds could be considered for further investigations toward the developpement of SARS-CoV-2 drug development.
Channel activity of SARS-CoV-2 viroporin ORF3a inhibited by adamantanes and phenolic plant metabolites, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-31764-9 ,
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for the major worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. Despite the enormous success of vaccination campaigns, virus infections are still prevalent and effective antiviral therapies are urgently needed. Viroporins are essential for virus replication and release, and are thus promising therapeutic targets. Here, we studied the expression and function of recombinant ORF3a viroporin of SARS-CoV-2 using a combination of cell viability assays and patch-clamp electrophysiology. ORF3a was expressed in HEK293 cells and transport to the plasma membrane verified by a dot blot assay. Incorporation of a membrane-directing signal peptide increased plasma membrane expression. Cell viability tests were carried out to measure cell damage associated with ORF3a activity, and voltage-clamp recordings verified its channel activity. The classical viroporin inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine inhibited ORF3a channels. A series of ten flavonoids and polyphenolics were studied. Kaempferol, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate, nobiletin, resveratrol and curcumin were ORF3a inhibitors, with IC50 values ranging between 1 and 6 µM, while 6-gingerol, apigenin, naringenin and genistein were inactive. For flavonoids, inhibitory activity could be related to the pattern of OH groups on the chromone ring system. Thus, the ORF3a viroporin of SARS-CoV-2 may indeed be a promising target for antiviral drugs.
Epigallocatechin-Gallate and Theaflavin-Gallate Interaction in SARS CoV-2 Spike-Protein Central-Channel with Reference to the Hydroxychloroquine Interaction: Bioinformatics and Molecular Docking Study, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0247.v1 ,
SARS CoV-2 or COVID-19 pandemic global-outbreak created the most unstable situation of human health-economy. Last two decades different parts of the word experienced smaller or bigger outbreak related to human-coronaviruses. The spike-glycoproteins of the COVID-19 (similar to SARS-CoV) attach to the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE-2) and transit over a stabilized open-state for the viral-internalization to the host-cells and propagate with great efficacy. Higher rate of mutability makes this virus unpredictable/less-sensitive to the protein/nucleic-acid based-drugs. In this emergent situation, drug-induced destabilization of spike-binding to RBD could be a good strategy. In the current study we demonstrated by Bioinformatics (CASTp: Computed-Atlas-of-Surface-Topography, PyMol: molecular-visualization) and Molecular docking (PatchDock) experiments that tea flavonoids catechin-products mainly EGCG or other like theaflavin gallate demonstrated higher Atomic Contact Energy (ACE), surface area and more amino-acid interactions than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) during binding in the central channel of the spike-protein. Moreover, out of three distinct binding-sites (I, II and III) of spike core when HCQ binds only with site III (farthest from the vCoV-RBD of ACE2 contact), EGCG and TG bind all three sites. As because site I and II is in closer contact with open state location and viral-host contact area so these drugs might have significant effects. Taking into account the toxicity/side-effects by CQ/HCQ, present drugs may be important. Our laboratory is working on tea flavonoids and other phytochemicals in the protection from toxicity, DNA/mitochondrial damage, inflammation etc. The present data might be helpful for further analysis of flavonoids in this emergent pandemic situation.
Potential of Plant Bioactive Compounds as SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) Glycoprotein Inhibitors: A Molecular Docking Study, Scientifica, doi:10.1155/2020/6307457 ,
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pandemic, researchers have been trying to investigate several active compounds found in plants that have the potential to inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The present study aimed to evaluate bioactive compounds found in plants using a molecular docking approach to inhibit the main protease (Mpro) and spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The evaluation was performed on the docking scores calculated using AutoDock Vina (AV) as a docking engine. A rule of five (Ro5) was calculated to determine whether a compound meets the criteria as an active drug orally in humans. The determination of the docking score was performed by selecting the best conformation of the protein-ligand complex that had the highest affinity (most negative Gibbs’ free energy of binding/ <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="M1"> <mi mathvariant="normal">Δ</mi> <mi>G</mi> </math> ). As a comparison, nelfinavir (an antiretroviral drug), chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (antimalarial drugs recommended by the FDA as emergency drugs) were used. The results showed that hesperidin, nabiximols, pectolinarin, epigallocatechin gallate, and rhoifolin had better poses than nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as spike glycoprotein inhibitors. Hesperidin, rhoifolin, pectolinarin, and nabiximols had about the same pose as nelfinavir but were better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate as Mpro inhibitors. This finding implied that several natural compounds of plants evaluated in this study showed better binding free energy compared to nelfinavir, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, which so far are recommended in the treatment of COVID-19. From quantum chemical DFT calculations, the ascending order of chemical reactivity of selected compounds was pectolinarin > hesperidin > rhoifolin > morin > epigallocatechin gallate. All isolated compounds’ C=O regions are preferable for an electrophilic attack, and O-H regions are suitable for a nucleophilic attack. Furthermore, Homo-Lumo and global descriptor values indicated a satisfactory remarkable profile for the selected compounds. As judged by the RO5 and previous study by others, the compounds kaempferol, herbacetin, eugenol, and 6-shogaol have good oral bioavailability, so they are also seen as promising candidates for the development of drugs to treat infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. The present study identified plant-based compounds that can be further investigated in vitro and in vivo as lead compounds against SARS-CoV-2.
Polyphenols as alternative treatments of COVID-19, Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, doi:10.1016/j.csbj.2021.09.022 ,
Plant Extracts and SARS-CoV-2: Research and Applications, Life, doi:10.3390/life13020386 ,
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought upon the world an unprecedented challenge. During its acute dissemination, a rush for vaccines started, making the scientific community come together and contribute to the development of efficient therapeutic agents and vaccines. Natural products have been used as sources of individual molecules and extracts capable of inhibiting/neutralizing several microorganisms, including viruses. Natural extracts have shown effective results against the coronavirus family, when first tested in the outbreak of SARS-CoV-1, back in 2002. In this review, the relationship between natural extracts and SARS-CoV is discussed, while also providing insight into misinformation regarding the use of plants as possible therapeutic agents. Studies with plant extracts on coronaviruses are presented, as well as the main inhibition assays and trends for the future regarding the yet unknown long-lasting effects post-infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Inhibitory effect of phytochemicals towards SARS-CoV-2 papain like protease (PLpro) proteolytic and deubiquitinase activity, Frontiers in Chemistry, doi:10.3389/fchem.2022.1100460 ,
Graphical AbstractInhibition of proteolytic and deubiquitinase activity of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro enzyme by phytochemicals.
The exploration of phytocompounds theoretically combats SARS-CoV-2 pandemic against virus entry, viral replication and immune evasion, Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2022.11.022 ,
Virtual screening of phytochemicals by targeting multiple proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies, International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, doi:10.1177/03946320221142793 ,
Objective Medicinal herbs are being investigated for medicationhg development against SARS-CoV-2 as a rich source of bioactive chemicals. One of the finest approaches for finding therapeutically effective drug molecules in real time is virtual screening scheme such as molecular docking in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. These virtual techniques provide an ample opportunity for the screening of plausible inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 different target proteins from a comprehensive and extensive phytochemical library. The study was designed to identify potential phytochemicals by virtual screening against different receptor proteins. Methods In the current study, a library of plant secondary metabolites was created by manually curating 120 phytochemicals known to have antimicrobial as well as antiviral properties. In the current study, different potential phytochemicals were identified by virtual screening against various selected receptor proteins (i.e., viral main proteases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), ADP ribose phosphatase, nonstructural proteins NSP7, NSP8, and NSP9) which are key proteins responsible for transcription, replication and maturation of SARS-CoV-2 in the host. Top three phytochemicals were selected against each viral receptor protein based on their best S-scores, RMSD values, molecular interactions, binding patterns and drug-likeness properties. Results The results of molecular docking study revealed that phytochemicals (i.e., baicalin, betaxanthin, epigallocatechin, fomecin A, gallic acid, hortensin, ichangin, kaempferol, limonoic acid, myricetin hexaacetat, pedalitin, quercetin, quercitrin, and silvestrol) have strong antiviral potential against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the reported preeminent reliable phytochemicals also revealed toxicity by no means during the evaluation through ADMET profiling. Moreover, the MD simulation study also exhibited thermal stability and stable binding affinity of the pedalitin with SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV-2 main protease which suggests appreciable efficacy of the lead optimization. Conclusion The biological activity and pharmacologically distinguishing characteristics of these lead compounds also satisfied as repurposing antiviral drug contenders and are worth substantial evaluation in the biological laboratory for the recommendation of being plausible antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
A Review of In Silico Research, SARS-CoV-2, and Neurodegeneration: Focus on Papain-Like Protease, Neurotoxicity Research, doi:10.1007/s12640-022-00542-2 ,
Implication of in silico studies in the search for novel inhibitors against SARS‐CoV‐2, Archiv der Pharmazie, doi:10.1002/ardp.202100360 ,
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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