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Cytarabine for COVID-19

Cytarabine has been reported as potentially beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. We have not reviewed these studies. See all other treatments.
Taguchi et al., Novel Method for Detection of Genes With Altered Expression Caused by Coronavirus Infection and Screening of Candidate Drugs for SARS-CoV-2, MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0431.v1
To better understand the genes with altered expression caused by infection with the novel coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 infectious disease, a tensor decomposition (TD)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE) approach was applied to a gene expression profile dataset of the mouse liver and spleen with experimental infection of mouse hepatitis virus, which is regarded as a suitable model of human coronavirus infection. TD-based unsupervised FE selected 134 altered genes, which were enriched in protein-protein interactions with orf1ab, polyprotein, and 3C-like protease that are well known to play critical roles in coronavirus infection, suggesting that these 134 genes can represent the coronavirus infectious process. We then selected compounds targeting the expression of the 134 selected genes based on a public domain database. The identified drug compounds were mainly related to known antiviral drugs, several of which were also included in those previously screened with an in silico method to identify candidate drugs for treating COVID-19.
kumar et al., Drug Repurposing to Identify Therapeutics Against COVID 19 with SARS-Cov-2 Spike Glycoprotein and Main Protease as Targets: An in Silico Study, American Chemical Society (ACS), doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12090408.v1
The total cases of novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) infections is more than one million and total deaths recorded is more than fifty thousand. The research for developing vaccines and drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is going on in different parts of the world. Aim of the present study was to identify potential drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from existing drugs using in silico molecular modeling and docking. The targets for the present study was the spike protein and the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The study was able to identify some drugs that can either bind to the spike protein receptor binding domain or the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. These include some of the antiviral drugs. These drugs might have the potential to inhibit the infection and viral replication.
Tomazou et al., Multi-omics data integration and network-based analysis drives a multiplex drug repurposing approach to a shortlist of candidate drugs against COVID-19, Briefings in Bioinformatics, doi:10.1093/bib/bbab114
Abstract The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is undeniably the most severe global health emergency since the 1918 Influenza outbreak. Depending on its evolutionary trajectory, the virus is expected to establish itself as an endemic infectious respiratory disease exhibiting seasonal flare-ups. Therefore, despite the unprecedented rally to reach a vaccine that can offer widespread immunization, it is equally important to reach effective prevention and treatment regimens for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Contributing to this effort, we have curated and analyzed multi-source and multi-omics publicly available data from patients, cell lines and databases in order to fuel a multiplex computational drug repurposing approach. We devised a network-based integration of multi-omic data to prioritize the most important genes related to COVID-19 and subsequently re-rank the identified candidate drugs. Our approach resulted in a highly informed integrated drug shortlist by combining structural diversity filtering along with experts’ curation and drug–target mapping on the depicted molecular pathways. In addition to the recently proposed drugs that are already generating promising results such as dexamethasone and remdesivir, our list includes inhibitors of Src tyrosine kinase (bosutinib, dasatinib, cytarabine and saracatinib), which appear to be involved in multiple COVID-19 pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, we highlight specific immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory drugs like dactolisib and methotrexate and inhibitors of histone deacetylase like hydroquinone and vorinostat with potential beneficial effects in their mechanisms of action. Overall, this multiplex drug repurposing approach, developed and utilized herein specifically for SARS-CoV-2, can offer a rapid mapping and drug prioritization against any pathogen-related disease.
Sperry et al., Target-agnostic drug prediction integrated with medical record analysis uncovers differential associations of statins with increased survival in COVID-19 patients, PLOS Computational Biology, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1011050 (Table 2)
Drug repurposing requires distinguishing established drug class targets from novel molecule-specific mechanisms and rapidly derisking their therapeutic potential in a time-critical manner, particularly in a pandemic scenario. In response to the challenge to rapidly identify treatment options for COVID-19, several studies reported that statins, as a drug class, reduce mortality in these patients. However, it is unknown if different statins exhibit consistent function or may have varying therapeutic benefit. A Bayesian network tool was used to predict drugs that shift the host transcriptomic response to SARS-CoV-2 infection towards a healthy state. Drugs were predicted using 14 RNA-sequencing datasets from 72 autopsy tissues and 465 COVID-19 patient samples or from cultured human cells and organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2. Top drug predictions included statins, which were then assessed using electronic medical records containing over 4,000 COVID-19 patients on statins to determine mortality risk in patients prescribed specific statins versus untreated matched controls. The same drugs were tested in Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human endothelial cells infected with a related OC43 coronavirus. Simvastatin was among the most highly predicted compounds (14/14 datasets) and five other statins, including atorvastatin, were predicted to be active in > 50% of analyses. Analysis of the clinical database revealed that reduced mortality risk was only observed in COVID-19 patients prescribed a subset of statins, including simvastatin and atorvastatin. In vitro testing of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells revealed simvastatin to be a potent direct inhibitor whereas most other statins were less effective. Simvastatin also inhibited OC43 infection and reduced cytokine production in endothelial cells. Statins may differ in their ability to sustain the lives of COVID-19 patients despite having a shared drug target and lipid-modifying mechanism of action. These findings highlight the value of target-agnostic drug prediction coupled with patient databases to identify and clinically evaluate non-obvious mechanisms and derisk and accelerate drug repurposing opportunities.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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