Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All alkalinization studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchAlkalinizationAlkalinization (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Nanoantidote for repression of acidosis pH promoting COVID‐19 infection

Liu et al., VIEW, doi:10.1002/VIW.20220004
May 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
27th treatment shown to reduce risk in November 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000000056 from 14 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
In Vitro study showing that acidosis-related low pH increases SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in HEK293T-ACE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Authors find that low pH of 6.8 (simulating acidosis in COVID-19 patients) increases ACE2 receptor levels on the cell membrane by reducing actin polymerization, compared to normal physiological pH of 7.4. The antacid nanoparticle CaCO3-NP neutralized the acidic pH and reduced ACE2 membrane levels and viral infection to normal pH 7.4 levels. Results suggest a positive feedback loop where SARS-CoV-2 infection induces acidosis, which further enhances viral entry and infection.
3 preclinical studies support the efficacy of alkalinization for COVID-19:
Liu et al., 31 May 2022, peer-reviewed, 7 authors. Contact: chengli_2017@tongji.edu.cn, lisiguang@tongji.edu.cn, wgcui80@hotmail.com.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperAlkalinizationAll
Nanoantidote for repression of acidosis pH promoting COVID‐19 infection
Qidong Liu, Huitong Ruan, Zhihao Sheng, Xiaoru Sun, Siguang Li, Wenguo Cui, Cheng Li
VIEW, doi:10.1002/viw.20220004
Acidosis, such as respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, can be induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and is associated with increased mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. It remains unclear whether acidosis further promotes SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients, making virus removal difficult. For antacid therapy, sodium bicarbonate poses great risks caused by sodium overload, bicarbonate side effects, and hypocalcemia. Therefore, new antacid antidote is urgently needed. Our study showed that an acidosis-related pH of 6.8 increases SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression on the cell membrane by regulating intracellular microfilament polymerization, promoting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. Based on this, we synthesized polyglutamic acid-PEG materials, used complexation of calcium ions and carboxyl groups to form the core, and adopted biomineralization methods to form a calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO 3 -NPs) nanoantidote to neutralize excess hydrogen ions (H + ), and restored the pH from 6.8 to approximately 7.4 (normal blood pH). CaCO 3 -NPs effectively prevented the heightened SARS-CoV-2 infection efficiency due to pH 6.8. Our study reveals that acidosis-related pH promotes SARS-CoV-2 infection, which suggests the existence of a positive feedback loop in which SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced acidosis enhances SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, antacid therapy for acidosis COVID-19 patients is necessary. CaCO 3 -NPs may become an effective antacid nanoantidote superior to sodium bicarbonate.
C O N F L I C T O F I N T E R E S T The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. O R C I D Zhihao Sheng https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6675-1400 R E F E R E N C E S
References
Accili, None, Nat Metab
Ackermann, Verleden, Kuehnel, Haverich, Welte et al., None, N Engl J Med
Adeva-Andany, Fernandez-Fernandez, Mourino-Bayolo, Castro-Quintela, Dominguez-Montero, None, Sci World J
Aid, Busman-Sahay, Vidal, Maliga, Bondoc et al., None, Cell
Blondin, Sapountzi, Maciver, Lagarrigue, Benyamin et al., None, Eur J Biochem
Cai, Saiding, Cheng, Zhang, Wang et al., None, Bioact Mater
Cai, Xu, Chen, Wang, Zhao, None, Eng Regen
Chand, Swenson, Goldfarb, None, Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens
Chen, Wang, Zhang, Chen, Hu et al., None, Nat Nanotechnol
Chirinos, Cohen, Zhao, Hanff, Sweitzer et al., None, Hypertension
Colmenero, Santonja, Alonso-Riano, Noguera-Morel, Hernandez-Martin et al., None, Br J Dermatol
Constable, None, Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract
Evans, Rainger, Mason, Guzik, Osto et al., None, Cardiovasc Res
Farokhzad, Tao, None, Trends Chem
Fielding-Singh, Matthay, Calfee, None, Crit Care Med
Frey, Kline, Foreman, Lyman, None, J Anim Sci
Gallop, None, Semin Cell Dev Biol
Gao, Ding, Dong, Zhang, Kursat Azkur et al., None, Allergy
Gheblawi, Wang, Viveiros, Nguyen, Zhong et al., None, Circ Res
Guan, Ni, Hu, Liang, Ou et al., China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19, N Engl J Med
Hawkins, Pope, Maciver, Weeds, None, Biochemistry
Hollstein, Schulte, Schulz, Gluck, Ziegler et al., None, Nat Metab
Holzinger, None, Methods Mol Biol
Jaber, Paugam, Futier, Lefrant, Lasocki et al., None, Lancet
Kraut, Madias, None, Nat Rev Nephrol
Li, Wang, Chen, Zuo, Zhang et al., None, Diabetes Obes Metab
Liu, Bi, Sun, Wang, Yu et al., None, Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
Liu, Cai, Wang, Hong, Deng et al., None, Adv Sci
Liu, Xu, Cui, Zhang, None, Eng Regen
Ma, Zhu, Zhang, Qian, Wang et al., None, VIEW
Maleki Dizaj, Barzegar-Jalali, Zarrintan, Adibkia, Lotfipour, None, Expert Opin Drug Deliv
Milewska, Nowak, Owczarek, Szczepanski, Zarebski et al., None, J Virol
Monteil, Kwon, Prado, Hagelkruys, Wimmer et al., None, Cell
Nishiyama, Okazaki, Cabral, Miyamoto, Kato et al., None, Cancer Res
Ogunlade, Guidry, Mukerjee, Sriramula, Lazartigues et al., None, Cell Mol Neurobiol
Palermo, Sadhu, Mcdonnell, None, J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Patel, Ahmed, Gunapalan, Hesselbacher, None, World J Diabetes
Quade, Parker, Occhipinti, None, Biochem Pharmacol
Rabie, Azzam, Al-Fares, Abdelbary, Mufti et al., None, Intensive Care Med
Rauf, Tasleem, Bhise, Tatiparti, Sau et al., None, View
Ruan, Hu, Wen, Chen, Chen et al., None, Adv Mater
Ruan, Hu, Wen, Chen, Chen et al., None, Adv Mater
Smith, Sausville, Girish, Yuan, Vasudevan et al., None, Dev Cell
Som, Raliya, Tian, Akers, Ippolito et al., None, Nanoscale
South, Diz, Chappell, None, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol
Stevens, Bogun, Mcmahon, Zucker, Kurlansky et al., None, Diabetes Metab
Tang, Kong, Zhang, Liu, Hu et al., None, Nat Rev Mater
Tang, Zhang, Shu, Guo, Zhang et al., None, Nano Today
Torres, Alcubilla, Gonzalez-Cordon, Inciarte, Chumbita et al., None, Int J Infect Dis
Verdecchia, Cavallini, Spanevello, Angeli, None, Eur J Intern Med
Wang, Xiang, Lin, Cai, Ruan et al., None, Matter
Wu, Mcgoogan, None, JAMA
Xia, Sriramula, Chhabra, Lazartigues, None, Circ Res
Xie, Ma, Tang, Liu, None, Front Public Health
Yamaguchi, Hamano, Doi, Oka, Kajimoto et al., None, Sci Rep
Yan, Zhang, Li, Xia, Guo et al., None, Science
Yang, Cai, Luo, Zhu, Hu et al., None, Crit Care Med
Yang, Yu, Wang, Wang, Shang, None, Eng Regen
Yang, Yu, Xu, Shu, Xia et al., None, Lancet Respir Med
Zhang, Wang, Liang, Feng, Deng et al., None, PLoS One
Zhao, Li, Ruan, Chen, Cai et al., None, ACS Nano
Zhuang, Cheng, Zhang, Jiang, Wang et al., None, J Med Virol
Ziegler, Allon, Nyquist, Mbano, Miao et al., HCA Lung Biological Network, Cell
{ 'DOI': '10.1002/viw.20220004', 'ISSN': ['2688-268X', '2688-268X'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/VIW.20220004', 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Acidosis, such as respiratory acidosis and metabolic ' 'acidosis, can be induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) infection and is associated ' 'with increased mortality in critically ill COVID‐19 patients. It remains unclear whether ' 'acidosis further promotes SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in patients, making virus removal difficult. ' 'For antacid therapy, sodium bicarbonate poses great risks caused by sodium overload, ' 'bicarbonate side effects, and hypocalcemia. Therefore, new antacid antidote is urgently ' 'needed. Our study showed that an acidosis‐related pH of 6.8 increases SARS‐CoV‐2 receptor ' 'angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression on the cell membrane by regulating ' 'intracellular microfilament polymerization, promoting SARS‐CoV‐2 pseudovirus infection. Based ' 'on this, we synthesized polyglutamic acid‐PEG materials, used complexation of calcium ions ' 'and carboxyl groups to form the core, and adopted biomineralization methods to form a calcium ' 'carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO<jats:sub>3</jats:sub>‐NPs) nanoantidote to neutralize excess ' 'hydrogen ions (H<jats:sup>+</jats:sup>), and restored the pH from 6.8 to approximately 7.4 ' '(normal blood pH). CaCO<jats:sub>3</jats:sub>‐NPs effectively prevented the heightened ' 'SARS‐CoV‐2 infection efficiency due to pH 6.8. Our study reveals that acidosis‐related pH ' 'promotes SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, which suggests the existence of a positive feedback loop in ' 'which SARS‐CoV‐2 infection‐induced acidosis enhances SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Therefore, antacid ' 'therapy for acidosis COVID‐19 patients is necessary. CaCO<jats:sub>3</jats:sub>‐NPs may ' 'become an effective antacid nanoantidote superior to sodium bicarbonate.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['10.1002/VIW.20220004'], 'assertion': [ { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Received', 'name': 'received', 'order': 0, 'value': '2022-01-27'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 1, 'value': '2022-03-02'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Publication History', 'name': 'publication_history'}, 'label': 'Published', 'name': 'published', 'order': 2, 'value': '2022-05-01'}], 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine Shanghai ' "Fourth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University " 'Shanghai P. R. China'}, { 'name': 'Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury Repair and ' 'Regeneration of Ministry of Education Orthopedic Department, ' 'Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University Shanghai ' 'P. R. China'}], 'family': 'Liu', 'given': 'Qidong', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Orthopaedics Shanghai Key Laboratory for ' 'Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases Shanghai ' 'Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics Ruijin Hospital ' 'Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai P. R. ' 'China'}], 'family': 'Ruan', 'given': 'Huitong', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6675-1400', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Anesthesiology Shanghai First Maternity and Infant ' 'Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University Shanghai P. R. ' 'China'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Sheng', 'given': 'Zhihao', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine Shanghai ' "Fourth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University " 'Shanghai P. R. China'}], 'family': 'Sun', 'given': 'Xiaoru', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury Repair and ' 'Regeneration of Ministry of Education Orthopedic Department, ' 'Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University Shanghai ' 'P. R. China'}], 'family': 'Li', 'given': 'Siguang', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Orthopaedics Shanghai Key Laboratory for ' 'Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases Shanghai ' 'Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics Ruijin Hospital ' 'Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai P. R. ' 'China'}], 'family': 'Cui', 'given': 'Wenguo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine Shanghai ' "Fourth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University " 'Shanghai P. R. China'}], 'family': 'Li', 'given': 'Cheng', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'VIEW', 'container-title-short': 'VIEW', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': ['onlinelibrary.wiley.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 5, 2]], 'date-time': '2022-05-02T05:45:25Z', 'timestamp': 1651470325000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 23]], 'date-time': '2023-08-23T23:18:45Z', 'timestamp': 1692832725000}, 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100012166', 'award': ['2020YFA0908200'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'National Key Research and Development Program of China'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100001809', 'award': ['82003658', '82101261', '81801067'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'National Natural Science Foundation of China'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100007219', 'award': ['20ZR1442900'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 2, 18]], 'date-time': '2024-02-18T05:53:22Z', 'timestamp': 1708235602509}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 5, 'issue': '4', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 5]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 7]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 5, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-05-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1651363200000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/VIW.20220004', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1002/VIW.20220004', 'content-type': 'application/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/VIW.20220004', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '311', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.1002', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 5]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 5]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 7]]}, 'publisher': 'Wiley', 'reference': [ {'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.2648', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_2_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1111/all.14657', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_3_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30079-5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_3_2'}, {'DOI': '10.3389/fpubh.2020.00189', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_4_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/CM9.0000000000000819', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_4_2'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s42255-020-00339-7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_4_3'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/CCM.0000000000004447', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_4_4'}, {'DOI': '10.1210/clinem/dgaa360', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_5_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s42255-020-00281-8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_6_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2002032', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_6_2'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s00134-021-06451-w', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_7_1'}, {'DOI': '10.4239/wjd.v9.i11.199', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_8_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31080-8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_9_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/MNH.0000000000000687', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_10_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1155/2014/627673', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_11_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-020-61459-4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_12_1'}, { 'author': 'Cai L.', 'first-page': '109', 'journal-title': 'Eng Regen.', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_13_1', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2021'}, {'DOI': '10.1126/science.abb2762', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_14_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejim.2020.04.037', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_14_2'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/VIW.20200178', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_15_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.matt.2021.09.022', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_16_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_17_1'}, { 'author': 'Yang C.', 'first-page': '171', 'journal-title': 'Eng Regen.', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_18_1', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2021'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_19_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2015432', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_19_2'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_20_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1111/bjd.19327', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_21_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/cvr/cvaa230', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_21_2'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.035', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_22_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26139', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_23_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/nrneph.2012.186', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_24_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15829', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_25_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301811', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_26_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.11.017', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_27_1'}, { 'author': 'Ogunlade B.', 'first-page': '252', 'journal-title': 'Cell Mol Neurobiol.', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_28_1', 'volume': '42', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.01933-17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_29_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1021/bi00089a014', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_30_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03101.x', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_31_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114278', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_32_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1111/dom.14057', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_33_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s41578-020-00247-y', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_34_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.trechm.2021.03.009', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_34_2'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nantod.2020.101019', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_35_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/adma.201806957', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_36_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/advs.202101619', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_36_2'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.04.039', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_36_3'}, {'DOI': '10.1021/acsnano.1c02147', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_36_4'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0199373', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_37_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1038/s41565-018-0319-4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_38_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1152/ajpheart.00217.2020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_39_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/978-1-60761-376-3_4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_40_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/CCM.0000000000003406', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_41_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.diabet.2021.101267', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_42_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.devcel.2020.05.012', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_43_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.207', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_44_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0749-0720(03)00054-9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_45_1'}, { 'author': 'Liu C.', 'first-page': '105', 'journal-title': 'Eng Regen.', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_46_1', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2021'}, {'DOI': '10.2527/2001.7971858x', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_47_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/VIW.20200155', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_48_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1039/C5NR06162H', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_49_1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1517/17425247.2015.1049530', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_50_1'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.msec.2020.110670', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_50_2'}, { 'author': 'Nishiyama N.', 'first-page': '8977', 'journal-title': 'Cancer Res.', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_51_1', 'volume': '63', 'year': '2003'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/adma.201806957', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'e_1_2_7_52_1'}], 'reference-count': 64, 'references-count': 64, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/VIW.20220004'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Biomedical Engineering', 'Biomaterials'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Nanoantidote for repression of acidosis pH promoting COVID‐19 infection', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/crossmark_policy', 'volume': '3'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit