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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 47% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Hogarth et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 110,380 patients in the USA (January - November 2021) Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p<0.000001) Hogarth et al., The American J. the Me.., May 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Clinical Characteristics and Comorbidities associated with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection in the University of California Healthcare Systems

Hogarth et al., The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.amjms.2023.04.019
May 2023  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 110,380 patients in the USA, showing higher risk of COVID-19 breakthrough cases with vitamin D deficiency.
Authors note that "lockdown measures pose an increased risk for individuals to develop vitamin D deficiency".
This paper was delayed by peer review >10 months.
This is the 179th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of case, 46.5% lower, OR 0.53, p < 0.001, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 96,894, low D levels (<20ng/mL) 13,486, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), breakthrough case, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hogarth et al., 3 May 2023, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, median age 56.0, 9 authors, study period 1 January, 2021 - 8 November, 2021. Contact: (corresponding author).
This PaperVitamin DAll
Clinical characteristics and comorbidities associated with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection in the University of California Healthcare Systems
M.D Michael Hogarth, Daniel John, Yuxiang Li, M.D Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Jaideep Chakladar, B.S Wei Tse Li, M.D Sanjay R Mehta, M.D Sharad Jain, Sharad Jain M.D Weg M Ongkeko
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.amjms.2023.04.019
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Role of Funder/Sponsor The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Additional Contributions: The authors thank the Center for Data-driven Insights and Innovation at UC Health (CDI2;, for its analytical and technical support related to use of the UC Health Data Warehouse and related data assets, including the UC COVID Research Data Set (CORDS). Figure Legend
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