Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
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Peg.. Lambda

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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 86% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 67% Recovery time 35% Time to viral- 44% Elkazzaz et al. NCT04353180 Vitamin A RCT LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with vitamin A beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 40 patients in Egypt (June - August 2020) Faster recovery (p<0.0001) and viral clearance (p<0.0001) Elkazzaz et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.05.22271959 Favors vitamin A Favors control
13 cis retinoic acid improved the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. A randomized clinical trial
Elkazzaz et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.05.22271959 (Preprint), NCT04353180 (history)
Elkazzaz et al., 13 cis retinoic acid improved the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. A randomized clinical trial, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.05.22271959 (Preprint), NCT04353180
Mar 2022   Source   PDF  
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RCT with 20 13-cis-retinoic acid patients and 20 control patients, showing faster recovery and viral clearance with treatment. Aerosolized 13-cis-retinoic acid with increasing dose from 0.2 mg/kg/day to 4 mg/kg/day for 14 days, plus oral 13-cis-retinoic acid 20 mg/day. 13-cis retinoic acid is a synthetic vitamin A derivative, and is teratogenic. NCT04353180 (history).
risk of death, 85.7% lower, RR 0.14, p = 0.23, treatment 0 of 20 (0.0%), control 3 of 20 (15.0%), NNT 6.7, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of ICU admission, 66.7% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.24, treatment 2 of 20 (10.0%), control 6 of 20 (30.0%), NNT 5.0.
recovery time, 35.4% lower, relative time 0.65, p < 0.001, treatment mean 16.3 (±4.5) n=20, control mean 25.23 (±4.72) n=20.
time to viral-, 44.0% lower, relative time 0.56, p < 0.001, treatment mean 13.36 (±1.49) n=20, control mean 23.85 (±4.0) n=20.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Elkazzaz et al., 8 Mar 2022, Randomized Controlled Trial, Egypt, preprint, 4 authors, study period June 2020 - August 2020, trial NCT04353180 (history).
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This PaperVitamin AAll
Abstract: STRA6 (vitamin A receptor), as a Novel binding receptor of COVID-19 (A breakthrough) Mahmoud Elkazzaz (  ) Faculty of Science Damietta University Tamer Haydara Faculty of Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt Yousry Esam-Eldin Abo-Amer Hepatology,Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases Department, Mahala Hepatology Teaching Hospital, Egypt Israa M Shamkh Chemo and Bioinformatics Lab, Bio Search Research Institution, BSRI. Giza , Egypt, Federal University of Alfenas, Brazil. Mohammed .F. Abo El Magd Zoology and Nematode department, Faculty of Agriculture , Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Amr Ahmed Director of tuberculosis program Ghubera, public health department ,First health cluster ,Ministry of health , Riyadh, Saudia Arabia. Research Article Keywords: COVID-19, Retinoic Acid, STRA6, Spike protein Posted Date: September 13th, 2021 DOI: License:   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Read Full License Page 1/18 Abstract Background A global pandemic of pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019. Although, the ACE2 receptor has been demonstrated to be the main entry receptor of COVID-19, but our docking analysis , predicted and discovered a novel receptor termed STRA6 that may play a critical role in the pathogenicity of COVID-19 and explain the common pre and post COVID-19 symptoms with unknown etiology. STRA6 receptor expressed in many organs and immune cells, upregulated by retinoic acid jm6 (STRA6) was the first protein to be identified in a novel category of proteins, cytokine signaling transporters, due to its ability to function as both a cell surface receptor and a membrane protein that binds to retinol binding protein facilitating cellular uptake of retinol. The primary ligand of STRA6 (vitamin/retinol) was shown to be drastically reduced during COVID-19 infection, which agrees with our findings. Methods The STRA6 receptor protein were submitted to the server for functional interaction associated network between partners for the STRING (Research Online of Interacting Genes/Proteins Data Basis version 10.0)13 .Docking study of each Spike -ACE 2 and STRA6 receptor protein were carried out using HDOCK server ( The binding mode of Spike -ACE 2 and STRA6 receptor protein is retrieved form the PDB with accession number (7DMU , 5sy1) Results Surprisingly, our molecular docking based analysis showed that spike protein Receptor Binding Domain(RDB) of COVID19 strongly and efficiently binds to STRA6 receptor, definitely to the RDB vital residues of RBP-binding motif located in STRA6 receptor. STRA6 receptor is a membrane receptor responsible for signaling and transporting of Vitamin A(Retinol) from plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) to our cells. In an outstanding manner, COVID-19 Spike protein exhibited high docking score with human STRA6 with low binding energy . The docking score of COVID-19 spike protein was stronger than the docking score of spike protein with ACE2.The surface view of complex reveals that the binding pocket of STRA6- Spike protein and Spike ACE 2 complexes with RMSD (189.44 Å , 1.00 Å )..
Late treatment
is less effective
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