• Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. 7 studies from 6 independent teams in 5 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (3 for the most serious outcome).
• Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 53% [27‑70%] improvement. Results are better for Randomized Controlled Trials and similar after exclusions. Results are consistent with early treatment being more effective than late treatment.
• Results are robust — in exclusion sensitivity analysis 9 of 11 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy in pooled analysis.
• No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% effective and available. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, and other treatments may be more effective. Only 18% of nigella sativa studies show zero events with treatment. The quality of non-prescription supplements can vary widely [Crawford, Crighton].
• All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix.
Covid Analysis et al., Dec 2022, preprint, 1 author.