Proxalutamide Significantly Accelerates Viral Clearance and Reduces Time to Clinical Remission in Patients with Mild to Moderate COVID-19: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Background The entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into type II pneumocytes is dependent on a modification of viral spike proteins by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) expressed on the surface of human cells. TMPRSS2 is regulated by the androgen receptor, hence, SARS-CoV-2 infectivity is indirectly dependent on androgenic status and phenotype. Previously, we have reported that men affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA) are overrepresented in severe coronavirus disease 2019 . Additionally, we have reported that men taking antiandrogenic drugs, e.g., 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARis), are less likely to have severe COVID-19. Here we aimed to test whether the androgen receptor antagonist, Proxalutamide, would be a beneficial treatment for subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Methods Male and female subjects were recruited to a double-blinded, randomized, prospective, investigational study of Proxalutamide for the treatment of COVID-19. Mild to moderate, non-hospitalized subjects, who were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2, were treated with either Proxalutamide 200 mg/day or placebo. Endpoints for the study were remission time (days) and the percentage of subjects confirmed negative for SARS-CoV-2 on Day 7 after treatment. A negative SARS-CoV-2 test was defined by concentration-time (Ct)>40 determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR).
Results Two-hundred thirty-six (2360 subjects were included in the study (108 female, 128 male); 171 were randomized to the Proxalutamide arm and 65 were in the placebo group. On Day 7, SARS-CoV-2 became non-detectable with rtPCR (cT>40) in 82% of the subjects in the Proxalutamide group versus 31% in the placebo group (p < 0.001). The average clinical remission time for patients treated with Proxalutamide was 4.2 ±5.4 days versus 21.8 ±13.0 days in the placebo arm (p < 0.001).
Conclusion Proxalutamide significantly accelerated viral clearance on Day 7 in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients versus placebo. Further, the time to clinical remission was significantly reduced in patients treated with Proxalutamide versus placebo.
Additional Information In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.
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