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Association Between Vitamin D Levels and COVID-19 Infection in Children: A Case-Control Study

Bayrak et al., Turkish Archives of Pediatrics, doi:10.5152/turkarchpediatr.2023.22217
Apr 2023  
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Moderate/severe case 27% Improvement Relative Risk Case 33% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Bayrak et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 149 patients in Turkey (November 2020 - January 2021) Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.23) Bayrak et al., Turkish Archives of Ped.., Apr 2023 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments.
Retrospective 73 COVID-19 and 76 healthy pediatric patients in Turkey, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
This is the 172nd of 199 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 835,162 vigintillion).
risk of moderate/severe case, 26.5% lower, RR 0.73, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 3 of 49 (6.1%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 2 of 24 (8.3%), NNT 45.
risk of case, 33.4% lower, OR 0.67, p = 0.23, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 41 of 73 (56.2%) cases, 50 of 76 (65.8%) controls, NNT 9.9, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Bayrak et al., 5 Apr 2023, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, mean age 19.0, 8 authors, study period November 2020 - January 2021. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association Between Vitamin D Levels and COVID-19 Infection in Children: A Case-Control Study
Harun Bayrak, Didem Ozturk, Ahmet Bolat, Bulent Unay
Turkish Archives of Pediatrics, doi:10.5152/turkarchpediatr.2023.22217
Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is seen in all age groups, and its symptoms are very variable. The course of the disease can be asymptomatic or mortal. In pediatric patients, vitamin D is thought to be protective against (COVID-19) with its immunomodulator, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and epithelial integrity properties. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between (COVID-19) infection and vitamin D level. Materials and Methods: We included (COVID-19) patients between 1 month and 18 years of age and healthy control groups. We compared epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings in patients. Results: One hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated in our study. Seventy-three (49%) of them were (COVID-19)-positive patients and 76 (51%) of them were healthy control group. The mean 25(OH)-D vitamin level was 15.80 ng/mL (5-41.56) in (COVID-19) patients and 21.51 ng/mL (5-69.80) in the control group. Vitamin D level was shown to be statistically significantly lower in coronavirus disease 2019 patients (P < .001). It was observed that myalgia was more common in patients with low 25(OH)-D levels (P < .048). Conclusion: Our study is one of the rare studies examining the relationship between (COVID-19) and 25(OH)-D vitamins in the pediatric age group. Children with (COVID-19) have a lower 25(OH)-D vitamin level than the control group.
Ethics Committee Approval: Ethical committee approval was received from the Ethics Committee of University of Health Sciences University (Approval No: 2020-493). Informed Consent: Informed consent was obtained from the patient's family, who agreed to take part in the study. Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.
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