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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort study

Assiri et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030
Aug 2021  
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -66% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Assiri et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 118 patients in Saudi Arabia Study underpowered to detect differences c19early.org Assiri et al., J. Infection and Public.., Aug 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 118 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant differences in unadjusted results with zinc, vitamin D, and favipiravir treatment.
Cholecalciferol was used in this study. Meta analysis shows that late stage treatment with calcitriol / calcifediol (or paricalcitol, alfacalcidol, etc.) is more effective than cholecalciferol: 69% [47‑82%] lower risk vs. 39% [26‑49%] lower risk. Cholecalciferol requires two hydroxylation steps to become activated - first in the liver to calcifediol, then in the kidney to calcitriol. Calcitriol, paricalcitol, and alfacalcidol are active vitamin D analogs that do not require conversion. This allows them to have more rapid onset of action compared to cholecalciferol. The time delay for cholecalciferol to increase serum calcifediol levels can be 2-3 days, and the delay for converting calcifediol to active calcitriol can be up to 7 days.
This is the 49th of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 268 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.000005.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers favipiravir, zinc, and vitamin D.
risk of death, 66.5% higher, RR 1.66, p = 0.60, treatment 12 of 90 (13.3%), control 2 of 28 (7.1%), inverted to make RR<1 favor treatment, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Assiri et al., 28 Aug 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, dosage not specified.
This PaperVitamin DAll
COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort study
Abdullah Assiri, Mir J Iqbal, Atheer Mohammed, Abdulrhman Alsaleh, Ahmed Assiri, Adeeb Noor, Redhwan Nour, Moteb Khobrani
Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic remains an immediate and present concern, yet as of now there is still no approved therapeutic available for the treatment of COVID-19.This study aimed to investigate and report evidence concerning demographic characteristics and currently-used medications that contribute to the ultimate outcomes of COVID-19 ICU patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Asir Central Hospital in Saudi Arabia between the 1st and 30th of June 2020. Data extracted from patients' medical records included their demographics, home medications, medications used to treat COVID-19, treatment durations, ICU stay, hospital stay, and ultimate outcome (recovery or death).Descriptive statistics and regression modelling were used to analyze and compare the results. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committees at both Asir Central Hospital and King Khalid University. Results: A total of 118 patients with median age of 57 years having definite clinical and disease outcomes were included in the study. Male patients accounted for 87% of the study population, and more than 65% experienced at least one comorbidity. The mean hospital and ICU stay was 11.4 and 9.8 days, respectively. The most common drugs used were tocilizumab (31.4%), triple combination therapy (45.8%), favipiravir (56.8%), dexamethasone (86.7%), and enoxaparin (83%). Treatment with enoxaparin significantly reduced the length of ICU stay (p = 0.04) and was found to be associated with mortality reduction in patients aged 50−75 (p = 0.03), whereas the triple regimen therapy and tocilizumab significantly increased the length of ICU stay in all patients (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 respectively). Conclusion: COVID-19 tends to affect males more significantly than females. The use of enoxaparin is an important part of COVID-19 treatment, especially for those above 50 years of age, while the use of triple combination therapy and tocilizumab in COVID-19 protocols should be reevaluated and restricted to patients who have high likelihood of benefit.
Competing interests None declared. Ethical approval Not required.
References
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Zhou, Zhang, Tian, Xiong, Risk factors associated with disease progression in a cohort of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus, Ann Palliat Med
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Late treatment
is less effective
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