Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All zinc studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Evaluation of Zinc Sulfate as an Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19 Critically Ill Patients: a Two Center Propensity-score Matched Study

Al Sulaiman et al., Critical Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1 (date from preprint)
Jun 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 36% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) 48% ICU time -25% Hospitalization time -6% Zinc for COVID-19  Al Sulaiman et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with zinc beneficial for COVID-19? PSM retrospective 164 patients in Saudi Arabia (Mar 2020 - Mar 2021) Lower mortality (p=0.11) and longer ICU admission (p=0.28), not sig. c19early.org Al Sulaiman et al., Critical Care, Jun 2021 Favors zinc Favors control
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 266 ICU patients showing lower mortality with zinc treatment, reaching statistical significance only for 30 day mortality, and lower odds of acute kidney injury, without statistical significance. NRC21R/287/07.
risk of death, 36.0% lower, HR 0.64, p = 0.11, treatment 23 of 82 (28.0%), control 32 of 82 (39.0%), NNT 9.1, adjusted per study, in-hospital, PSM, multivariable Cox proportional hazards.
risk of death, 48.0% lower, HR 0.52, p = 0.03, treatment 19 of 82 (23.2%), control 31 of 82 (37.8%), NNT 6.8, adjusted per study, 30 day, PSM, multivariable Cox proportional hazards.
ICU time, 25.0% higher, relative time 1.25, p = 0.28, treatment 82, control 82.
hospitalization time, 6.2% higher, relative time 1.06, p = 0.61, treatment 82, control 82.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Al Sulaiman et al., 7 Jun 2021, retrospective, propensity score matching, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, study period 1 March, 2020 - 31 March, 2021.
This PaperZincAll
Evaluation of zinc sulfate as an adjunctive therapy in COVID-19 critically ill patients: a two center propensity-score matched study
Khalid Al Sulaiman, Ohoud Aljuhani, Abdulrahman I Al Shaya, Abdullah Kharbosh, Raed Kensara, Alhomaidi Al Guwairy, Aisha Alharbi, Rahmah Algarni, Shmeylan Al Harbi, Ramesh Vishwakarma, Ghazwa B Korayem
Critical Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1
Background: Zinc is a trace element that plays a role in stimulating innate and acquired immunity. The role of zinc in critically ill patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zinc sulfate as adjunctive therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with COVID-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in two tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia were retrospectively assessed for zinc use from March 1, 2020 until March 31, 2021. After propensity score matching (1:1 ratio) based on the selected criteria, we assessed the association of zinc used as adjunctive therapy with the 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included the in-hospital mortality, ventilator free days, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and complication (s) during ICU stay. Results: A total of 164 patients were included, 82 patients received zinc. Patients who received zinc sulfate as adjunctive therapy have a lower 30-day mortality (HR 0.52, CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.03). On the other hand, the in-hospital mortality was not statistically significant between the two groups (HR 0.64, CI 0.37-1.10; p = 0.11). Zinc sulfate use was associated with a lower odds of acute kidney injury development during ICU stay (OR 0.46 CI 0.19-1.06; p = 0.07); however, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The use of zinc sulfate as an additional treatment in critically ill COVID-19 patients may improve survival. Furthermore, zinc supplementation may have a protective effect on the kidneys.
Abbreviations Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1186/ s13054-021-03785-1. Additional file 1: Table e1 Patients Baseline characteristics before and after propensity-score matching. Authors' contributions KS and OA equally contributed to the conception and design of the research; AS, GK, AK, SA, RK, RV and AA contributed to the design of the research; KS, OA, AS, GK, AK, SA, RK, RV, AAB, RG and AA contributed to the acquisition and analysis of the data; KS, OA, AS, GK contributed to the interpretation of the data; KS, OA, AS, SA, AK, RK, AA, AAB, RG and RV drafted the manuscript. All authors critically revised the manuscript, agree to be fully accountable for ensuring the integrity and accuracy of the work, and read and approved the final manuscript. Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate The study was approved in November 19th, 2020 by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center Institutional Review Board, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Reference No: RC20/589/R). Participants' confidentiality was strictly observed throughout the study using the anonymous unique serial number for each subject and restricting data only to the investigators. Informed consent was not required due to the research's method as per the policy of the governmental and local research center. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing..
References
Abd-Elsalam, Soliman, Esmail, Khalaf, Mostafa et al., Do zinc supplements enhance the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine? A randomized multicenter trial, Biol Trace Elem Res
Al Sulaiman, Aljuhani, Eljaaly, Alharbi, Shabasy et al., Clinical features and outcomes of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multicenter cohort study, Int J Infect Dis
Al-Doush, El-Din, The distribution of selenium levels in Saudi dairy farms: a preliminary report from Al-Kharj, J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
Aleissa, Silverman, Acosta, Nutt, Richterman et al., New perspectives on antimicrobial agents: remdesivir treatment for COVID-19, Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Alhazzani, Evans, Alshamsi, Møller, Ostermann et al., Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines on the management of adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the ICU: first update, Critical Care Med
Alhazzani, Møller, Arabi, Loeb, Gong, Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Intensive Care Med, doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5
Barnard, Wong, Bailey, Day, Sidwell et al., Effect of oral gavage treatment with ZnAL42 and other metallo-ion formulations on influenza A H5N1 and H1N1 virus infections in mice, Antiviral Chem Chemother
Carlucci, Ahuja, Petrilli, Rajagopalan, Jones et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs. hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, J Medical Microbiol
Chen, Zhao, Qu, Chen, Xiong et al., Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients, Clin Infect Dis
Coomes, Haghbayan, Interleukin-6 in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Rev Med Virol
Derwand, Scholz, Zelenko, COVID-19 outpatients: early risk-stratified treatment with zinc plus low-dose hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin: a retrospective case series study, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Fromonot, Gette, Lassoued, Guéant, Guéant-Rodriguez et al., Hypozincemia in the early stage of COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19, Clin Nutr, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.042
Gupta, Wang, Hayek, Chan, Mathews et al., Association between early treatment with tocilizumab and mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19, JAMA Intern Med
Heyland, Jones, Cvijanovich, Wong, Review: zinc supplementation in critically ill patients: a key pharmaconutrient?, J Parenter Enter Nutr
Huang, Pranata, Lim, Oehadian, Alisjahbana, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and ferritin in severe coronavirus disease-2019: a meta-analysis, Ther Adv Respir Dis, doi:10.1177/1753466620937175
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, The Lancet
Kumar, Kubota, Chernov, Kasuya, Potential role of zinc supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19, Med Hypotheses
Mdcalc, MDcalc-Medical calculators, equations, scores, and guidelines
Perera, El Khoury, Chinni, Bolton, Qu et al., Randomised controlled trial for high-dose intravenous zinc as adjunctive therapy in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) positive critically ill patients: trial protocol, BMJ Open
Pormohammad, Monych, Turner, Pormohammad, Zinc and SARS-CoV-2: a molecular modeling study of Zn interactions with RNAdependent RNA-polymerase and 3C-like proteinase enzymes, Int J Mol Med
Read, Obeid, Ahlenstiel, Ahlenstiel, The role of zinc in antiviral immunity, Adv Nutr
Shakoor, Feehan, Dhaheri, Ali, Platat et al., Immune-boosting role of vitamins D, C, E, zinc, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids: could they help against COVID-19?, Maturitas
Short, Gupta, Brenner, Hayek, Srivastava et al., D-dimer and Death in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019, Crit Care Med
Szarpak, Pruc, Gasecka, Jaguszewski, Michalski et al., Should we supplement zinc in COVID-19 patients? Evidence from meta-analysis, Polish Arch Intern Med
The, Group, Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2021436
Veiga, Prats, Farias, Rosa, Dourado et al., Effect of tocilizumab on clinical outcomes at 15 days in patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019: randomised controlled trial, BMJ
Velthuis, Van Den Worml, Sims, Baric, Snijder et al., Zn 2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture, PLoS Pathog
Wang, Hu, Hu, Zhu, Liu et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 2, 19]], 'date-time': '2024-02-19T13:47:08Z', 'timestamp': 1708350428179}, 'reference-count': 30, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'issue': '1', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]], 'date-time': '2021-10-18T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1634515200000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]], 'date-time': '2021-10-18T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1634515200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['link.springer.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Background</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Zinc is a trace element that plays a role in stimulating innate and ' 'acquired immunity. The role of zinc in critically ill patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. ' 'This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zinc sulfate as adjunctive therapy in ' 'critically ill patients with COVID-19.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>Patients aged\u2009≥\u200918\xa0years with COVID-19 who were ' 'admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in two tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia were ' 'retrospectively assessed for zinc use from\xa0March\xa01, 2020 until March\xa031, 2021. ' 'After propensity score matching (1:1 ratio) based on the selected criteria, we assessed the ' 'association of zinc used as adjunctive therapy with the 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes ' 'included the in-hospital mortality, ventilator free days, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital ' 'LOS, and complication (s) during ICU stay.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>A total of 164 patients were included, 82 patients received zinc. ' 'Patients who received zinc sulfate as adjunctive therapy have a lower 30-day mortality (HR ' '0.52, CI 0.29, 0.92;\xa0<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.03). On the other hand, ' 'the in-hospital mortality was not statistically significant between the two groups (HR 0.64, ' 'CI 0.37–1.10;\xa0<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.11). Zinc sulfate use was ' 'associated with a lower odds of acute kidney injury development during ICU stay (OR 0.46 CI ' '0.19–1.06;\xa0<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.07); however, it did not reach ' 'statistical significance.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec><jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>The use of zinc sulfate as an additional treatment in critically ill ' 'COVID-19 patients may improve survival. Furthermore, zinc supplementation may have a ' 'protective effect on the kidneys.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]], 'date-time': '2021-10-18T22:54:38Z', 'timestamp': 1634597678000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 16, 'title': 'Evaluation of zinc sulfate as an adjunctive therapy in COVID-19 critically ill patients: a two ' 'center propensity-score matched study', 'prefix': '10.1186', 'volume': '25', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5547-2043', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Khalid', 'family': 'Al Sulaiman', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ohoud', 'family': 'Aljuhani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Abdulrahman I.', 'family': 'Al Shaya', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Abdullah', 'family': 'Kharbosh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Raed', 'family': 'Kensara', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alhomaidi', 'family': 'Al Guwairy', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Aisha', 'family': 'Alharbi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Rahmah', 'family': 'Algarni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Shmeylan', 'family': 'Al Harbi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ramesh', 'family': 'Vishwakarma', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ghazwa B.', 'family': 'Korayem', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '297', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '3785_CR1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '497', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'C Huang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of ' 'patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The ' 'Lancet. 2020;395:497–506.', 'journal-title': 'The Lancet'}, { 'key': '3785_CR2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1061', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.1585', 'volume': '323', 'author': 'D Wang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical ' 'characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323:1061–9.', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '3785_CR3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1002/rmv.2141', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'EA Coomes', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Coomes EA, Haghbayan H. Interleukin-6 in COVID-19: a systematic review ' 'and meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2020;30:1–9.', 'journal-title': 'Rev Med Virol'}, { 'key': '3785_CR4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '180', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2021.02.037', 'volume': '105', 'author': 'KA al Sulaiman', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'al Sulaiman KA, Aljuhani O, Eljaaly K, Alharbi AA, al Shabasy AM, ' 'Alsaeedi AS, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of critically ill ' 'patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multicenter cohort ' 'study. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;105:180–7.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '3785_CR5', 'first-page': '1', 'volume': '25', 'author': 'S Abd-Elsalam', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Abd-Elsalam S, Soliman S, Esmail ES, Khalaf M, Mostafa EF, Medhat MA, et ' 'al. Do zinc supplements enhance the clinical efficacy of ' 'hydroxychloroquine? A randomized multicenter trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. ' '2020;25:1–5.', 'journal-title': 'Biol Trace Elem Res'}, { 'key': '3785_CR6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '854', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'W Alhazzani', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Alhazzani W, Møller MH, Arabi YM, Loeb M, Gong MN, Fan E, et al. ' 'Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ' 'ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Intensive Care Med. ' '2020;46:854–87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5.', 'journal-title': 'Intensive Care Med'}, { 'key': '3785_CR7', 'first-page': 'E219', 'volume': '2021', 'author': 'W Alhazzani', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Alhazzani W, Evans L, Alshamsi F, Møller MH, Ostermann M, Prescott HC, ' 'et al. Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines on the management of adults ' 'with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the ICU: first update. ' 'Critical Care Med. 2019;2021:E219–34.', 'journal-title': 'Critical Care Med'}, { 'key': '3785_CR8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '693', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2021436', 'volume': '384', 'author': 'The RECOVERY Collaborative Group', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'The RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients ' 'with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:693–704. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021436.', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '3785_CR9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '41', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6252', 'volume': '181', 'author': 'S Gupta', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Gupta S, Wang W, Hayek SS, Chan L, Mathews KS, Melamed ML, et al. ' 'Association between early treatment with tocilizumab and mortality among ' 'critically ill patients with COVID-19. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:41–51.', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Intern Med'}, { 'key': '3785_CR10', 'first-page': '372', 'volume': '2021', 'author': 'VC Veiga', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Veiga VC, Prats JAGG, Farias DLC, Rosa RG, Dourado LK, Zampieri FG, et ' 'al. Effect of tocilizumab on clinical outcomes at 15 days in patients ' 'with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019: randomised controlled ' 'trial. BMJ. 2019;2021:372.', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': '3785_CR11', 'first-page': 'e01814', 'volume': '65', 'author': 'MM Aleissa', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Aleissa MM, Silverman EA, Paredes Acosta LM, Nutt CT, Richterman A, ' 'Marty FM. New perspectives on antimicrobial agents: remdesivir treatment ' 'for COVID-19. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021;65:e01814.', 'journal-title': 'Antimicrob Agents Chemother'}, { 'key': '3785_CR12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.08.003', 'volume': '143', 'author': 'H Shakoor', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Shakoor H, Feehan J, al Dhaheri AS, Ali HI, Platat C, Ismail LC, et al. ' 'Immune-boosting role of vitamins D, C, E, zinc, selenium and omega-3 ' 'fatty acids: could they help against COVID-19? Maturitas. 2021;143:1–9.', 'journal-title': 'Maturitas'}, { 'key': '3785_CR13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '696', 'DOI': '10.1093/advances/nmz013', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'SA Read', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in ' 'antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. 2019;10:696–710.', 'journal-title': 'Adv Nutr'}, { 'key': '3785_CR14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '125', 'DOI': '10.1177/095632020701800302', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'DL Barnard', 'year': '2007', 'unstructured': 'Barnard DL, Wong M-H, Bailey K, Day CW, Sidwell RW, Hickok SS, et al. ' 'Effect of oral gavage treatment with ZnAL42 and other metallo-ion ' 'formulations on influenza A H5N1 and H1N1 virus infections in mice. ' 'Antiviral Chem Chemother. 2007;18:125–32.', 'journal-title': 'Antiviral Chem Chemother'}, { 'key': '3785_CR15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e1001176', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'AJW te Velthuis', 'year': '2010', 'unstructured': 'te Velthuis AJW, van den Worml SHE, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van ' 'Hemert MJ. Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase ' 'activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ' 'viruses in cell culture. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001176.', 'journal-title': 'PLoS Pathog'}, { 'key': '3785_CR16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '326', 'DOI': '10.3892/ijmm.2020.4790', 'volume': '47', 'author': 'A Pormohammad', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Pormohammad A, Monych NK, Turner RJ, Pormohammad A. Zinc and SARS-CoV-2: ' 'a molecular modeling study of Zn interactions with RNA-dependent ' 'RNA-polymerase and 3C-like proteinase enzymes. Int J Mol Med. ' '2021;47:326–34.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Med'}, { 'key': '3785_CR17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '109848', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109848', 'volume': '144', 'author': 'A Kumar', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Kumar A, Kubota Y, Chernov M, Kasuya H. Potential role of zinc ' 'supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. Med ' 'Hypotheses. 2020;144:109848.', 'journal-title': 'Med Hypotheses'}, { 'key': '3785_CR18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '106214', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106214', 'volume': '56', 'author': 'R Derwand', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Derwand R, Scholz M, Zelenko V. COVID-19 outpatients: early ' 'risk-stratified treatment with zinc plus low-dose hydroxychloroquine and ' 'azithromycin: a retrospective case series study. Int J Antimicrob ' 'Agents. 2020;56:106214.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents'}, { 'key': '3785_CR19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '509', 'DOI': '10.1177/0148607108322402', 'volume': '32', 'author': 'DK Heyland', 'year': '2008', 'unstructured': 'Heyland DK, Jones N, Cvijanovich NZ, Wong H. Review: zinc ' 'supplementation in critically ill patients: a key pharmaconutrient? J ' 'Parenter Enter Nutr. 2008;32:509–19.', 'journal-title': 'J Parenter Enter Nutr'}, { 'key': '3785_CR20', 'unstructured': 'MDcalc. MDcalc-Medical calculators, equations, scores, and guidelines. ' '[Internet]. [cited 2021 May 28]. Available from: MDcalc.com'}, { 'key': '3785_CR21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Section 2: AKI ' 'Definition. Kidney International Supplements. 2012;2:19–36.', 'DOI': '10.1038/kisup.2011.32'}, { 'key': '3785_CR22', 'unstructured': 'ICD - ICD-10-CM: International Classification of Diseases, Tenth ' 'Revision, Clinical Modification. 2021.'}, { 'key': '3785_CR23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Carlucci PM, Ahuja T, Petrilli C, Rajagopalan H, Jones S, Rahimian J. ' 'Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs. hydroxychloroquine and ' 'azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. J ' 'Medical Microbiol. 2020;1228–34.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.05.02.20080036'}, { 'key': '3785_CR24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Szarpak L, Pruc M, Gasecka A, Jaguszewski MJ, Michalski T, Peacock FW, ' 'et al. Should we supplement zinc in COVID-19 patients? Evidence from ' 'meta-analysis. Polish Arch Intern Med. 2021.', 'DOI': '10.20452/pamw.16048'}, { 'key': '3785_CR25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1937', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa449', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'X Chen', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Chen X, Zhao B, Qu Y, Chen Y, Xiong J, Feng Y, et al. Detectable serum ' 'SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically ' 'elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ' 'Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71:1937–42.', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '3785_CR26', 'first-page': '37', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'IA Al-Saleh', 'year': '1999', 'unstructured': 'Al-Saleh IA, Al-Jaloud A, Al-Doush I, El-Din G. The distribution of ' 'selenium levels in Saudi dairy farms: a preliminary report from ' 'Al-Kharj. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1999;18:37–46.', 'journal-title': 'J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol'}, { 'key': '3785_CR27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.042', 'author': 'J Fromonot', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Fromonot J, Gette M, Ben Lassoued A, Guéant JL, Guéant-Rodriguez RM, ' 'Guieu R. Hypozincemia in the early stage of COVID-19 is associated with ' 'an increased risk of severe COVID-19. Clin Nutr. 2021. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.042.', 'journal-title': 'Clin Nutr'}, { 'key': '3785_CR28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e500', 'DOI': '10.1097/CCM.0000000000004917', 'volume': '49', 'author': 'SAP Short', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Short SAP, Gupta S, Brenner SK, Hayek SS, Srivastava A, Shaefi S, et al. ' 'D-dimer and Death in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease ' '2019. Crit Care Med. 2021;49:e500.', 'journal-title': 'Crit Care Med'}, { 'key': '3785_CR29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e040580', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040580', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'M Perera', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Perera M, el Khoury J, Chinni V, Bolton D, Qu L, Johnson P, et al. ' 'Randomised controlled trial for high-dose intravenous zinc as adjunctive ' 'therapy in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) positive critically ill patients: trial ' 'protocol. BMJ Open. 2020;10:e040580.', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Open'}, { 'key': '3785_CR30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '175346662093717', 'DOI': '10.1177/1753466620937175', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'I Huang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Huang I, Pranata R, Lim MA, Oehadian A, Alisjahbana B. C-reactive ' 'protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and ferritin in severe coronavirus ' 'disease-2019: a meta-analysis. Ther Adv Respir Dis. ' '2020;14:1753466620937175. https://doi.org/10.1177/1753466620937175.', 'journal-title': 'Ther Adv Respir Dis'}], 'container-title': 'Critical Care', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]], 'date-time': '2021-10-18T23:11:24Z', 'timestamp': 1634598684000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]]}, 'references-count': 30, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['3785'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1364-8535'], 'subject': ['Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Crit Care', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '2 June 2021', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '6 October 2021', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '18 October 2021', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, {'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Declarations'}}, { 'value': 'The study was approved in November 19th, 2020 by King Abdullah International ' 'Medical Research Center Institutional Review Board, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' "(Reference No: RC20/589/R). Participants' confidentiality was strictly observed " 'throughout the study using the anonymous unique serial number for each subject ' 'and restricting data only to the investigators. Informed consent was not ' "required due to the research's method as per the policy of the governmental and " 'local research center.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Ethics approval and consent to participate'}}, { 'value': 'Not applicable.', 'order': 3, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Consent for publication'}}, { 'value': 'The authors declare that they have no competing interests.', 'order': 4, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Competing interests'}}], 'article-number': '363'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit