Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All miscellaneous studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchSelect treatment..Select..
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta


Virgin Coconut Oil as Adjunctive Therapy for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Alejandria et al., Acta Medica Philippina, doi:10.47895/amp.vi0.7498 , NCT04849637
May 2024  
  Source   PDF  
Mortality 86% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 86% ICU admission 67% Hospitalization time 10% Recovery time 3% Viral clearance -8% VCO  Alejandria et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with VCO beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 77 patients in Philippines Lower mortality (p=0.12) and ventilation (p=0.12), not sig. Alejandria et al., Acta Medica Philipp.., May 2024 FavorsVCO Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
RCT 77 hospitalized patients showing no significant differences with virgin coconut oil (VCO) treatment.
Viral load measured by PCR may not accurately reflect infectious virus measured by viral culture. Porter et al. show that viral load early in infection was correlated with infectious virus, but viral load late in infection could be high even with low or undetectable infectious virus. Assessing viral load later in infection may underestimate reductions in infectious virus with treatment.
risk of death, 85.9% lower, RR 0.14, p = 0.12, treatment 0 of 39 (0.0%), control 3 of 38 (7.9%), NNT 13, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 85.9% lower, RR 0.14, p = 0.12, treatment 0 of 39 (0.0%), control 3 of 38 (7.9%), NNT 13, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of ICU admission, 67.0% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.49, treatment 0 of 39 (0.0%), control 1 of 38 (2.6%), NNT 38, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
hospitalization time, 9.7% lower, relative time 0.90, p = 0.41, treatment mean 9.29 (±5.29) n=39, control mean 10.29 (±5.38) n=38.
recovery time, 3.4% lower, relative time 0.97, p = 0.77, treatment mean 6.5 (±3.5) n=39, control mean 6.73 (±3.3) n=38.
risk of no viral clearance, 7.9% higher, RR 1.08, p = 0.60, treatment 31 of 39 (79.5%), control 28 of 38 (73.7%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alejandria et al., 15 May 2024, Randomized Controlled Trial, Philippines, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, trial NCT04849637 (history).
This PaperMiscellaneousAll
Virgin Coconut Oil as Adjunctive Therapy for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in a Tertiary Referral Hospital: A Randomized Controlled Trial
MD, MSc Marissa M Alejandria, Michelle M Leslie, PhD Dalmacio, Monica M Fresthel, MD Climacosa, Carol Stephanie, MD, MSc C Tan-Lim, MD Joseph M Abaca, Maria Llaine, MD J Callanta, Maria Elizabeth, MD, MAS P Mercado, Stephanie C Carol, MD, MSc Tan-Lim
Acta Medica Philippina, doi:10.47895/amp.vi0.7498
Background. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties, making it a potential therapeutic candidate against COVID-19 infection. Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of VCO as adjunctive therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods. We conducted a randomized, open-label controlled trial involving laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at the Philippine General Hospital. The study participants were randomized to the intervention group who received virgin coconut oil with local standard of care, or to the control group who received local standard of care alone. Results. We enrolled 39 participants into the VCO group and 38 participants into the control group. Significantly fewer participants in the VCO group had abnormal CRP levels at the end of treatment compared to control. (relative risk [RR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58 to 0.95; p=0.02) No significant difference was found in the duration of hospital stay (mean 9.33 days for VCO vs. 10.29 days for control; p=0.45) and time to symptom resolution (mean 6.8 days for VCO, vs. 6.74 days for control; p=0.91). Although the proportion of patients who developed the secondary outcomes of mortality, need for ICU admission, need for invasive ventilation, and negative viral conversion was lower in the VCO group, results did not reach statistical significance. The VCO group had larger reduction in the inflammatory markers ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, TNF-alpha, IP-10 and IL-6, but results did not reach statistical significance. Adverse events were significantly higher in the VCO group (RR 4.87, 95% CI 1.14 to 20.79; p=0.03). Conclusion. This clinical trial on hospitalized patients showed significant benefit in CRP levels of participants given VCO compared to control. There was no significant benefit in the use of VCO as adjunctive therapy in reducing duration of hospital stay. Larger studies are needed to conclusively demonstrate the effect of VCO on other clinical outcomes and inflammatory markers.
Statement of Authorship All authors certified fulfillment of ICMJE authorship criteria. Author Disclosure This study was supported by the Department of Science and Technology -Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (DOST-PCHRD). The funding agency had no involvement in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Bartolotta, García, Candurra, Damonte, Effect of fatty acids on arenavirus replication: inhibition of virus production by lauric acid, Arch Virol, doi:10.1007/s007050170146
Chinwong, Chinwong, Mangklabruks, Daily consumption of virgin coconut oil increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy volunteers: a randomized crossover trial, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, doi:10.1155/2017/7251562
Dayrit, Coconut Oil in Health and Disease: Its and Monolaurin's Potential as Cure for HIV/AIDS. XXXVII Cocotech Meeting
Famurewa, Aja, Maduagwuna, Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Ufebe et al., Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of virgin coconut oil supplementation abrogate acute chemotherapy oxidative nephrotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate in rats, Biomed Pharmacother, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2017.12.008
Hartono, Sari, Avicena, Maryani, Sukmagautama, The Effect of Curcumin and Virgin Coconut Oil Towards Cytokines Levels in COVID-19 Patients at Universitas Sebelas Maret Hospital, Surakarta, Indonesia, Pharmacogn J, doi:10.5530/pj.2022.14.27
Hornung, Amtmann, Sauer, Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus, J Gen Virol, doi:10.1099/0022-1317-75-2-353
Law, Azman, Omar, Musa, Yusoff et al., The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients, Lipids Health Dis, doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-139
Lin, Phyu, Phyu, Mon, The role of steroids in the management of COVID-19 infection, Cureus, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2017.12.008
Nacis, Capanzana, Dayrit, Tanda, Virgin coconut oil is effective in lowering C-reactive protein levels among suspect and probable cases of COVID-19, J Funct Foods, doi:10.1016/j.jff.2021.104557
Paz, Jimeno, Sy, Punzalan, Pena, The effect of virgin coconut oil on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar: a Phase I clinical trial, Philipp J Intern Med, doi:10.3860/PJIM.V48I2.2632
Tan-Lim, Martinez, Should virgin coconut oil be used in the adjunctive treatment of COVID-19?, Acta Med Philipp
Thormar, Isaacs, Brown, Barshatzky, Pessolano, Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, doi:10.1128/AAC.31.1.27
Valle, Kim-Schulze, Huang, Beckmann, Nirenberg, An inflammatory cytokine signature predicts COVID-19 severity and survival, Nat Med, doi:10.1038/s41591-020-1051-9
Varma, Sivaprakasam, Arumugam, Dilip, Raghuraman et al., In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of virgin coconut oil, J Tradit Complement Med, doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.06.012
Vysakh, Ratheesh, Rajmohanan, Pramod, Premlal et al., Polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, Int Immunopharmacol, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.02.026
Widhiarta, Virgin coconut oil for HIV -positive people, Cord, doi:10.37833/cord.v32i1
Yang, Shen, Li, Yuan, Wei et al., Plasma IP-10 and MCP-3 levels are highly associated with disease severity and predict the progression of COVID-19, J Allergy Clin Immunol, doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.027
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-08-01T04:27:04Z', 'timestamp': 1690864024768}, 'reference-count': 0, 'publisher': 'University of the Philippines Manila', 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'DOI': '10.47895/amp.vi0.7498', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-08-01T01:36:08Z', 'timestamp': 1690853768000}, 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Virgin Coconut Oil as Adjunctive Therapy for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in a Tertiary ' 'Referral Hospital: A Randomized Controlled Trial', 'prefix': '10.47895', 'member': '27557', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023]]}, 'container-title': 'Acta Medica Philippina', 'original-title': [], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-08-01T01:36:08Z', 'timestamp': 1690853768000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': { 'primary': { 'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023]]}, 'references-count': 0, 'URL': '', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2094-9278'], 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Acta Med Philipp', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023]]}}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop