Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

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$0 $1,000 $2,000+ -25% 0% 25% 50% Treatment cost (US$) Efficacy vs. cost for COVID-19 treatments Acetaminophen Lufotrelvir $2,000+ Cannabidiol Vitamin B9 Conv. Plasma $5,000 Ibuprofen Remdesivir $3,120 Aspirin Molnupiravir mutagenic/teratogenic Favipiravir Famotidine Paxlovid Vitamin C NAC HCQ Zinc Probiotics Colchicine Sotrovimab $2,100 Budesonide Metformin Sleep Antiandro.. Azvudine Bebtelovimab Vitamin A Vitamin D Sunlight H. Peroxide Fluvox. Exercise Curcumin N. Sativa Melatonin Tixagevimab/c.. pH+ Bamlanivimab/e.. Quercetin Casirivimab/i.. $2,100 Diet PVP-I Thermotherapy Ivermectin Regdanvimab $2,100 Lifestyle / free No prescription Prescription required High-cost Lower risk Higher risk April 2024 COVID-19 involves the interplay of 50+ host and viral proteinsand other factors, many treatments are known to modulate these.0.6% of 7,000+ proposed treatments show efficacy with ≥3 studies.Protocols combine treatments, none are 100% effective.c19early analyzes over 4,000 studies for 69 treatments.
General studies not related to specific treatments. Submit updates/corrections.
Apr 8
Aghasadeghi et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2024.1332425 Effect of high-dose Spirulina supplementation on hospitalized adults with COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial
85% lower mortality (p=0.0002) and 75% higher hospital discharge (p=0.003). RCT 189 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing lower mortality and faster recovery with high-dose spirulina. Spirulina treatment also resulted in greater reductions in inflammatory markers such as IL-6, TNF-a, IP-10, CRP, ESR, and ferriti..
Apr 2
Cameron et al., Critical Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-024-04869-4 Vitamin D metabolism in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a prospective observational study
Non-COVID-19 study of 137 critically ill patients showing significantly lower serum calcitriol in patients with moderate-to-severe acute kidney injury (AKI) compared to critically ill patients without AKI, but no significant difference in..
Mar 28
Sharma et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-57561-6 Brain temperature and free water increases after mild COVID-19 infection
Analysis of 10 patients with brain imaging before and after mild COVID-19 suggesting that the primary route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the central nervous system (CNS) is via the olfactory nerve in the nasal cavity, a pathway known as the..
Mar 27
Martínez-Gómez et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2024.1335963 The fatal contribution of serine protease-related genetic variants to COVID-19 outcomes
Cross-sectional study of 1,536 COVID-19 patients in Mexico showing increased mortality associated with the TMPRSS2 rs75603675 AA genotype and the SERPINE1 rs2227692 T allele and TT genotype. The SERPINE1 rs2227692 T allele was also associ..
Mar 20
Grangier et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-55378-x Comparison of mortality and outcomes of four respiratory viruses in the intensive care unit: a multicenter retrospective study
Retrospective 807 ICU patients showing higher mortality with COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza compared to RSV and seasonal influenza.
Mar 11
Chen et al., eBioMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2024.105042 Mitoquinone mesylate as post-exposure prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans: an exploratory single center pragmatic open label non-randomized pilot clinical trial with matched controls
91% fewer moderate/severe cases (p=0.05), 83% fewer symptomatic cases (p<0.0001), and 60% fewer cases (p=0.0001). Open-label non-randomized trial with 80 participants exposed to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases, showing lower risk of infection and milder symptoms with mitoquinone mesylate (Mito-MES) prophylaxis. 40 participants took Mito-MES 20mg daily for..
Mar 10
Korves et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2024.03.08.24303818 SARS-CoV-2 Genetic Variants and Patient Factors Associated with Hospitalization Risk
Retrospective 12,538 COVID-19 patients, showing associations between specific SARS-CoV-2 lineages and amino acid mutations and increased hospitalization risk, while infection with omicron was associated with lower hospitalization risk com..
Feb 29
Hampshire et al., New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2311330 Cognition and Memory after Covid-19 in a Large Community Sample
Observational study of 112,964 adults in England completing an online cognitive assessment, showing significant cognitive deficits persisting over a year after COVID-19. The largest deficits were seen with hospitalization and unresolved p..
Feb 28
Duloquin et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm13051397 Is COVID-19 Infection a Multiorganic Disease? Focus on Extrapulmonary Involvement of SARS-CoV-2
Review of the extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which can affect multiple organs beyond the lungs including the cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, hepatic, and dermatologic systems. Authors suggest..
Feb 27
Lui et al., Virology, doi:10.1128/mbio.00392-24 Nsp1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication through calcineurin-NFAT signaling
In Vitro study showing cyclosporine A (CsA) and the calcineurin-NFAT inhibitor VIVIT inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. Authors find SARS-CoV-2 protein Nsp1 hijacks host NFAT signaling by binding calcineurin A, ..
Feb 22
Singh et al., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkae045 The relationship between viral clearance rates and disease progression in early symptomatic COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 44 RCTs of antiviral treatments for early symptomatic COVID-19, including 52,384 participants, assessing the relationship between the SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance rate and the risk of hospitalization o..
Feb 21
Malar et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-55013-9 Network analysis-guided drug repurposing strategies targeting LPAR receptor in the interplay of COVID, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes
In silico study showing potential COVID-19 treatment benefits by repurposing drugs targeting lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs), which are implicated in the tri-directional relationship between Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and COVI..
Feb 16
Willett et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-024-05878-3 SARS-CoV-2 rapidly evolves lineage-specific phenotypic differences when passaged repeatedly in immune-naïve mice
Mouse study demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly acquire mutations altering infectivity, disease severity, and drug resistance even without selective pressure. Antigenic drift can undermine variant-specific treatments like monoclonal..
Feb 13
Niarakis et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1282859 Drug-target identification in COVID-19 disease mechanisms using computational systems biology approaches
In silico study integrating multi-omics data analysis, computational modelling, text mining, and AI to suggest targeted COVID-19 therapies. Authors identified 54 potential targets using omic data analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected cell lines..
Jan 31
Morris et al., Food and Environmental Virology, doi:10.1007/s12560-023-09581-0 Screening Commercial Tea for Rapid Inactivation of Infectious SARS-CoV-2 in Saliva
In Vitro study showing that certain teas can rapidly inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. At 10 mg/mL infusion, black tea showed the highest reduction (99.9%) of infectious SARS-CoV-2 within 10 seconds. Green, mint medley, eucalyptus mint, an..
Jan 31
Ullah et al., iScience, doi:10.1016/j.isci.2024.109049 Bioluminescence Imaging Reveals Enhanced SARS-CoV-2 Clearance in Mice with Combinatorial Regimens
Mouse study showing that monotherapy with approved antiviral drugs favipiravir, molnupiravir or nirmatrelvir reduced but did not clear SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants in K18-hACE2 mice. Combination therapy with molnupiravir and nirm..
Jan 25
Zech et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16020177 Causes and Consequences of Coronavirus Spike Protein Variability
Review of causes and consequences of coronavirus spike protein variability focused on SARS-CoV-2. Authors discuss initial features of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and subsequent adaptations to the human host that may have enabled the COVI..
Jan 23
Fiaschi et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16020168 In Vitro Combinatorial Activity of Direct Acting Antivirals and Monoclonal Antibodies against the Ancestral B.1 and BQ.1.1 SARS-CoV-2 Viral Variants
In vitro study showing additive or synergistic antiviral effects with combinations of COVID-19 therapeutics nirmatrelvir, molnupiravir, remdesivir, and monoclonal antibodies sotrovimab, bebtelovimab, cilgavimab and tixagevimab against anc..
Sep 21
Davidson et al., Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2023.08.011 No evidence of important difference in summary treatment effects between COVID-19 preprints and peer-reviewed publications: a meta-epidemiological study
Meta-epidemiological study including 37 meta-analyses with 114 RCTs assessing pharmacological treatments for COVID-19, showing no evidence of an important difference in meta analysis results between preprints and peer-reviewed publications.
Jul 11
Sodagar et al., Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom12070971 Pathological Features and Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brain and Potential Therapeutic Approaches
Review of the pathological features, neuroinflammatory mechanisms, and potential therapeutic approaches for SARS-CoV-2 in the brain. The review discusses the neuro-invasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 and possible entry routes into the brain,..
Sep 11
Lv et al., Virus Genes, doi:10.1007/s11262-021-01869-2 Host proviral and antiviral factors for SARS-CoV-2
Review of host proviral and antiviral factors for SARS-CoV-2. Authors summarize current understanding of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and host cellular factors during virus entry and replication. They highlight ACE2 as the main recept..
Jan 21
Moustgaard et al., BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.l6802 Impact of blinding on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials: meta-epidemiological study
Meta-analysis of 142 meta-analyses (1,153 trials) finding no evidence that lack of blinding of patients, healthcare providers, or outcome assessors influenced effect estimates in randomized clinical trials on average.
Aug 20
Als-Nielsen et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.290.7.921 Association of Funding and Conclusions in Randomized Drug Trials
Analysis of randomized drug trials included in Cochrane reviews, showing that trials funded by for-profit organizations were significantly more likely to recommend the experimental drug as treatment of choice (OR 5.3 [2.0-14.4]) compared ..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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