Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe/critical COVID-19 93% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Ye et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 62 patients in China Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.034) Ye et al., J. the American College of .., Oct 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and Its Severity? A Case-Control Study

Ye et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.182600
Oct 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Case control study in China comparing 62 patients with 80 healthy controls showing vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for COVID-19, especially for severe/critical cases.
This is the 20th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of severe/critical COVID-19, 93.4% lower, RR 0.07, p = 0.03, high D levels 2 of 36 (5.6%), low D levels 8 of 26 (30.8%), NNT 4.0, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, >50nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ye et al., 13 Oct 2020, retrospective, China, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and Its Severity?-A Case-Control Study
Kun Ye, Fen Tang, Fen Tang b à Xin Liao, Benjamin A Shaw, Meiqiu Deng, Guangyi Huang, Zhiqiang Qin, Xiaomei Peng, Hewei Xiao, Chunxia Chen, Xiaochun Liu, Leping Ning, Bangqin Wang, Ningning Tang, Min Li, Fan Xu, Shao Lin, Jianrong Yang
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1826005
Background: As effective medication to treat COVID-19 is currently unavailable, preventive remedies may be particularly important. Objective: To examine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level and COVID-19 infection, its severity, and its clinical case characteristics. Methods: This case-control study compared serum 25(OH)D levels and rates of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) between 80 healthy controls and 62 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to Guangxi People's Hospital, China, 2/16/2020-3/16/2020. Cases were categorized into asymptomatic, mild/moderate, and severe/critical disease. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between 25(OH)D level, or VDD, and case status/severity of COVID-19 while controlling for demographics and comorbidities. A threshold level of vitamin D for conveying COVID-19 risk was estimated. Results: Severe/critical COVID-19 cases were significantly older and had higher percentages of comorbidity (renal failure) compared to mild cases. The serum 25(OH)D concentration in COVID-19 patient was much lower than that in healthy control. And 25(OH)D level was the lowest in severe/ critical cases, compared with mild cases. In further, significantly higher rates of VDD were found in COVID-19 cases (41.9%) compared to healthy controls (11.1%). And VDD was the greatest in severe/critical cases (80%), compared with mild cases (36%). These statistically significant associations remained even after controlling for demographics and comorbidities. A potential threshold of 25(OH)D (41.19 nmol/L) to protect against COVID-19 was identified. Conclusion: Elderly and people with comorbidities were susceptible to severe COVID-19 infection. VDD was a risk factor for COVID-19, especially for severe/critical cases. While further confirmation is needed, vitamin D supplementation may have prevention or treatment potential for COVID-19 disease.
Authors' contributions K. Ye, S. Lin, F. Xu. Designed research; F.Tang, X.Liao, G. Huang, C. Chen, N. Tang conducted research; H. Xiao, X. Liao performed statistical analysis; F. Tang, X. Liao, M. Deng wrote the paper; Z. Qin, X. Peng, X. Liu, L. Ning, B. Wang, M. Li, J. Yang provided essential technical and material support; F. Xu, S. Lin, J. Yang, K. Ye had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Disclosure statement All authors have no conflict of interest. ORCID Bangqin Wang
Alquaiz, Kazi, Fouda, Alyousefi, Age and gender differences in the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency, Arch Osteoporos, doi:10.1007/s11657-018-0461-5
Chen, Zhou, Dong, Qu, Gong et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet
Contreras-Manzano, Villalpando, Garcia-Diaz, Flores-Aldana, Cardiovascular risk factors and their association with Vitamin D deficiency in Mexican women of reproductive age, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu11061211
D'antiga, Coronaviruses and immunosuppressed patients. The facts during the third epidemic, Liver Transplant, doi:10.1002/LT.25756
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, Cusato, Nicol O et al., 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12051359
Esposito, Lelii, Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections in childhood, BMC Infect Dis, doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1196-1
Gallagher, Sai, Templin, Smith, Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-6-201203200-00005
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Antonelli, Cabrini et al., Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy, Jama, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5394
Gruber-Bzura, Vitamin D and influenza-prevention or therapy?, Int J Mol Sci
Guan, Ni, Hu, Liang, Ou et al., Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032?articleTools=true
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050
Haugen, Chandyo, Ulak, Mathisen, Basnet et al., 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D concentration is not affected by severe or non-severe pneumonia, or inflammation, in young children, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu9010052
Holick, Binkley, Bischoff-Ferrari, Gordon, Hanley et al., Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin Exp Res, doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8
Laaksi, Ruohola, Mattila, Auvinen, Ylikomi et al., Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory tract infection: a randomized, double-blinded trial among young Finnish men, J Infect Dis, doi:10.1086/654881
Laird, Rhodes, Kenny, Vitamin D and inflammation: Potential implications for severity of Covid-19, Ir Med J
Levey, Stevens, Schmid, Zhang, Castro et al., A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006
Liu, Stenger, Li, Wenzel, Tan et al., Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response, Science, doi:10.1126/science.1123933
Mamani, Muceli, Basir, Vasheghani, Poorolajal, Association between serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and community-acquired pneumonia: a casecontrol study, IJGM, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S149049
Mangin, Sinha, Fincher, Inflammation and vitamin D: the infection connection, Inflamm Res, doi:10.1007/s00011-014-0755-z
Mathyssen, Gayan-Ramirez, Bouillon, Janssens, Vitamin D supplementation in respiratory diseases: evidence from randomized controlled trials, Pol Arch Intern Med, doi:10.20452/pamw.4134
Mcnally, Leis, Matheson, Karuananyake, Sankaran et al., Vitamin D deficiency in young children with severe acute lower respiratory infection, Pediatr Pulmonol, doi:10.1002/ppul.21089
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study, FEBS J
Munshi, Hussein, Toraih, Elshazli, Jardak et al., Vitamin D insufficiency as a potential culprit in critical COVID-19 patients, J Med Virol
Nhco, The guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19
Panagiotou, Tee, Ihsan, Athar, Marchitelli et al., Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity, Clin Endocrinol, doi:10.1111/cen.14276
Talebi, Nejad, Yaseri, Hadadi, Association of vitamin D status with the severity and mortality of communityacquired pneumonia in Iran during 2016-2017: A Prospective Cohort Study, Rep Biochem Mol Biol
Vo, Koppel, Espinola, Mansbach, Celedon et al., Vitamin D status at the time of hospitalization for bronchiolitis and its association with disease severity, J Pediatr, doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.097
Wang, Hu, Hu, Zhu, Liu et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, Jama, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
Weiss, Murdoch, Clinical course and mortality risk of severe COVID-19, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30633-4
Wu, Liao, Xia, Li, Li et al., Vitamin D receptor negatively regulates bacterial-stimulated NF-kappaB activity in intestine, Am J Pathol, doi:10.2353/ajpath.2010.090998
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jama, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Zheng, Gao, Wang, Song, Liu et al., Functional exhaustion of antiviral lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients, Cell Mol Immunol, doi:10.1038/s41423-020-0402-2
Zhu, Chen, Li, Yang, Liu et al., Associations of vitamin D with novel and traditional anthropometric indices according to age and sex: a cross-sectional study in central southern China, Eat Weight Disord
Zhu, Zhang, Li, Yang, Song et al., A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop