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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Multidimensional Sleep Health Prior to SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk of Post–COVID-19 Condition

Wang et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.15885
May 2023  
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PASC, before and during 36% Improvement Relative Risk PASC, during pandemic 18% PASC, before pandemic 30% Sleep  Wang et al.  Prophylaxis  LONG COVID Does better sleep reduce the risk of long COVID (PASC)? Retrospective 1,979 patients in the USA Lower PASC with higher quality sleep (p=0.00044) c19early.org Wang et al., JAMA Network Open, May 2023 Favorsgood sleep Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Sleep for COVID-19
15th treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2021
 
*, now with p = 0.0000000019 from 15 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 1,979 nurses in the USA, showing lower risk of long COVID with better sleep quality.
risk of PASC, 36.0% lower, RR 0.64, p < 0.001, higher quality sleep 559, lower quality sleep 180, adjusted per study, healthy sleep before and during the pandemic, multivariable.
risk of PASC, 18.0% lower, RR 0.82, p = 0.03, adjusted per study, healthy sleep during the pandemic, multivariable.
risk of PASC, 30.0% lower, RR 0.70, p = 0.02, higher quality sleep 238, lower quality sleep 166, adjusted per study, healthy sleep before the pandemic, sleep score 5 vs. score 0 or 1, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Wang et al., 30 May 2023, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperSleepAll
Multidimensional Sleep Health Prior to SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk of Post-COVID-19 Condition
MD Siwen Wang, ScD Tianyi Huang, PhD, ScD Marc G Weisskopf, ScD Jae H Kang, MD, ScD Jorge E Chavarro, PhD Andrea L Roberts, Roberts Wang, Roberts Chavarro, Weisskopf, Chavarro Kang, Anthony Menor
doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.15885
IMPORTANCE The association of multiple healthy sleep dimensions with post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), also known as long COVID, has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE To examine whether multidimensional sleep health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, was associated with the risk of PCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective cohort study (2015-2021) included Nurses' Health Study II participants who reported testing positive (n = 2303) for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a substudy series of COVID-19-related surveys (n = 32 249) between April 2020 and November 2021. After exclusion for incomplete information about sleep health and nonresponse to a question about PCC, 1979 women were included in the analysis. EXPOSURES Sleep health was measured both before (June 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017) and early (April 1 to August 31, 2020) in the COVID-19 pandemic. Prepandemic sleep score was defined according to 5 dimensions: morning chronotype (assessed in 2015), 7 to 8 hours of sleep per day, low insomnia symptoms, no snoring, and no frequent daytime dysfunction (all assessed in 2017). On the first COVID-19 substudy survey (returned between April and August 2020), average daily sleep duration and sleep quality for the past 7 days were queried. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES SARS-CoV-2 infection and PCC (Ն4 weeks of symptoms) were self-reported during 1 year of follow-up. Comparisons were examined between June 8, 2022, and January 9, 2023, using Poisson regression models. RESULTS Of the 1979 participants reporting SARS-CoV-2 infection (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [4.6] years; 1979 [100%] female; and 1924 [97.2%] White vs 55 [2.8%] other races and ethnicities), 845 (42.7%) were frontline health care workers, and 870 (44.0%) developed PCC. Compared with women who had a prepandemic sleep score of 0 or 1 (least healthy), those who scored 5 (most healthy) had a 30% lower risk of developing PCC (multivariable-adjusted relative risk, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94; P for trend <.001). Associations did not differ by health care worker status. No or little daytime dysfunction prepandemic and good sleep quality during the pandemic were independently associated with a lower risk of PCC (relative risk, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.98] and 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99], respectively). Results were similar when PCC was defined as having 8 or more weeks of symptoms or as having ongoing symptoms at the time of PCC assessment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The findings indicate that healthy sleep measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, may be protective against PCC. Future research should investigate whether interventions on sleep health may prevent PCC or improve PCC symptoms.
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' 'After exclusion for incomplete information about sleep health and nonresponse to a question ' 'about PCC, 1979 women were included in the analysis.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec ' 'id="ab-zoi230479-7"><jats:title>Exposures</jats:title><jats:p>Sleep health was measured both ' 'before (June 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017) and early (April 1 to August 31, 2020) in the COVID-19 ' 'pandemic. Prepandemic sleep score was defined according to 5 dimensions: morning chronotype ' '(assessed in 2015), 7 to 8 hours of sleep per day, low insomnia symptoms, no snoring, and no ' 'frequent daytime dysfunction (all assessed in 2017). On the first COVID-19 substudy survey ' '(returned between April and August 2020), average daily sleep duration and sleep quality for ' 'the past 7 days were queried.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec ' 'id="ab-zoi230479-8"><jats:title>Main Outcomes and Measures</jats:title><jats:p>SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection and PCC (≥4 weeks of symptoms) were self-reported during 1 year of follow-up. ' 'Comparisons were examined between June 8, 2022, and January 9, 2023, using Poisson regression ' 'models.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec ' 'id="ab-zoi230479-9"><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Of the 1979 participants ' 'reporting SARS-CoV-2 infection (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [4.6] years; 1979 [100%] female; and 1924 ' '[97.2%] White vs 55 [2.8%] other races and ethnicities), 845 (42.7%) were frontline health ' 'care workers, and 870 (44.0%) developed PCC. Compared with women who had a prepandemic sleep ' 'score of 0 or 1 (least healthy), those who scored 5 (most healthy) had a 30% lower risk of ' 'developing PCC (multivariable-adjusted relative risk, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94; ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> for trend &amp;amp;lt;.001). Associations did not differ by ' 'health care worker status. No or little daytime dysfunction prepandemic and good sleep ' 'quality during the pandemic were independently associated with a lower risk of PCC (relative ' 'risk, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.98] and 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99], respectively). Results were ' 'similar when PCC was defined as having 8 or more weeks of symptoms or as having ongoing ' 'symptoms at the time of PCC assessment.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec ' 'id="ab-zoi230479-10"><jats:title>Conclusions and Relevance</jats:title><jats:p>The findings ' 'indicate that healthy sleep measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection, both before and during ' 'the COVID-19 pandemic, may be protective against PCC. Future research should investigate ' 'whether interventions on sleep health may prevent PCC or improve PCC ' 'symptoms.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.15885', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 5, 30]], 'date-time': '2023-05-30T15:32:32Z', 'timestamp': 1685460752000}, 'page': 'e2315885', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 4, 'title': 'Multidimensional Sleep Health Prior to SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk of Post–COVID-19 Condition', 'prefix': '10.1001', 'volume': '6', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Siwen', 'family': 'Wang', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. 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respiratory symptom clusters following symptomatic ' 'COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021.', 'volume': '328', 'author': 'Wulf Hanson', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '213', 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1440-1819.2001.00830.x', 'article-title': 'Subjective sleep quality and sleep problems in the general Japanese ' 'adult population.', 'volume': '55', 'author': 'Doi', 'year': '2001', 'journal-title': 'Psychiatry Clin Neurosci'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/sleep/zsab258', 'article-title': 'Prevalent, incident, and persistent insomnia in a population-based ' 'cohort tested before (2018) and during the first-wave of COVID-19 ' 'pandemic (2020).', 'volume': '45', 'author': 'Morin', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Sleep'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': 'zoi230479r14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '299', 'DOI': '10.5664/jcsm.8930', 'article-title': 'Sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic by population: a systematic ' 'review and meta-analysis.', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'Jahrami', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Sleep Med'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': 'zoi230479r15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/sleep/zsab138', 'article-title': 'Poor sleep behavior burden and risk of COVID-19 mortality and ' 'hospitalization.', 'volume': '44', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Sleep'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': 'zoi230479r16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/sleep/zsac003', 'article-title': 'Associations of sleep and circadian phenotypes with COVID-19 ' 'susceptibility and hospitalization: an observational cohort study based ' 'on the UK Biobank and a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.', 'volume': '45', 'author': 'Liu', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Sleep'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fpubh.2022.995664', 'article-title': 'Insomnia and sleep duration on COVID-19 susceptibility and ' 'hospitalization: a Mendelian randomization study.', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Peng', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Front Public Health'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '47', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.sleep.2021.03.029', 'article-title': 'Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and outcomes from coronavirus disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.', 'volume': '82', 'author': 'Hariyanto', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Sleep Med'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '79', 'DOI': '10.1016/0960-5428(94)00045-P', 'article-title': 'Sleep, sleep deprivation and infectious disease: studies in animals.', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'Toth', 'year': '1995', 'journal-title': 'Adv Neuroimmunol'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': 'zoi230479r21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1182', 'DOI': '10.1093/eurheartj/ehz849', 'article-title': 'Sleep patterns, genetic susceptibility, and incident cardiovascular ' 'disease: a prospective study of 385?292 UK Biobank participants.', 'volume': '41', 'author': 'Fan', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur Heart J'}, { 'issue': '1648', 'key': 'zoi230479r22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'n1648', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n1648', 'article-title': 'Long COVID-mechanisms, risk factors, and management.', 'volume': '374', 'author': 'Crook', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '146', 'DOI': '10.1002/9780470514382.ch9', 'article-title': 'Enteroviruses and postviral fatigue syndrome.', 'volume': '173', 'author': 'Behan', 'year': '1993', 'journal-title': 'Ciba Found Symp'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': 'zoi230479r24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '911', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41591-022-01810-6', 'article-title': 'Unexplained post-acute infection syndromes.', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'Choutka', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nat Med'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1325', 'DOI': '10.1152/physrev.00010.2018', 'article-title': 'The sleep-immune crosstalk in health and disease.', 'volume': '99', 'author': 'Besedovsky', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Physiol Rev'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': 'zoi230479r26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1573', 'DOI': '10.2105/AJPH.2016.303338', 'article-title': 'Origin, methods, and evolution of the Three Nurses’ Health Studies.', 'volume': '106', 'author': 'Bao', 'year': '2016', 'journal-title': 'Am J Public Health'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': 'zoi230479r27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '449', 'DOI': '10.1177/0748730415597520', 'article-title': 'Comparing the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Munich ' 'ChronoType Questionnaire to the dim light melatonin onset.', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Kantermann', 'year': '2015', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Rhythms'}, { 'issue': '1-2', 'key': 'zoi230479r28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '21', 'DOI': '10.1080/07420520500464361', 'article-title': 'Melatonin and human rhythms.', 'volume': '23', 'author': 'Arendt', 'year': '2006', 'journal-title': 'Chronobiol Int'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '440', 'DOI': '10.1093/sleep/27.3.440', 'article-title': 'A prospective study of sleep duration and mortality risk in women.', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'Patel', 'year': '2004', 'journal-title': 'Sleep'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '98', 'DOI': '10.1097/01.psy.0000151743.58067.f0', 'article-title': 'Validation of the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale in a ' 'multicenter controlled clinical trial.', 'volume': '67', 'author': 'Levine', 'year': '2005', 'journal-title': 'Psychosom Med'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': 'zoi230479r31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '477', 'DOI': '10.1089/jwh.2012.3918', 'article-title': 'Sleep duration, insomnia, and coronary heart disease among ' 'postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative.', 'volume': '22', 'author': 'Sands-Lincoln', 'year': '2013', 'journal-title': 'J Womens Health (Larchmt)'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '600', 'DOI': '10.1378/chest.99.3.600', 'article-title': 'Relative validity of self-reported snoring as a symptom of sleep apnea ' 'in a sleep clinic population.', 'volume': '99', 'author': 'Bliwise', 'year': '1991', 'journal-title': 'Chest'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '383', 'DOI': '10.1093/sleep/31.3.383', 'article-title': 'The subjective meaning of sleep quality: a comparison of individuals ' 'with and without insomnia.', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'Harvey', 'year': '2008', 'journal-title': 'Sleep'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '97', 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050792', 'article-title': 'Adherence to a healthy sleep pattern and incident heart failure: a ' 'prospective study of 408 802 UK Biobank participants.', 'volume': '143', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Circulation'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '68', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.08.028', 'article-title': 'Adherence to a healthy sleep pattern and risk of chronic kidney ' 'disease: the UK Biobank study.', 'volume': '97', 'author': 'Geng', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Mayo Clin Proc'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fgene.2021.663449', 'article-title': 'Associations between sleep quality and health span: a prospective ' 'cohort study based on 328,850 UK Biobank participants.', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'Sambou', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Front Genet'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': 'zoi230479r38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1081', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.2640', 'article-title': 'Associations of depression, anxiety, worry, perceived stress, and ' 'loneliness prior to infection with risk of post-COVID-19 conditions.', 'volume': '79', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Psychiatry'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': 'zoi230479r39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1127', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11606-022-07997-1', 'article-title': 'Racial/ethnic disparities in post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection in New York: an EHR-based cohort study from the RECOVER ' 'program.', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'Khullar', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'J Gen Intern Med'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '79', 'DOI': '10.2147/NSS', 'article-title': 'Are sleep patterns influenced by race/ethnicity—a marker of relative ' 'advantage or disadvantage? evidence to date.', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'Johnson', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Nat Sci Sleep'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': 'zoi230479r41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '570', 'DOI': '10.1093/aje/kww104', 'article-title': 'Validity of a dietary questionnaire assessed by comparison with ' 'multiple weighed dietary records or 24-hour recalls.', 'volume': '185', 'author': 'Yuan', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Am J Epidemiol'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': 'zoi230479r42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1051', 'DOI': '10.1093/aje/kwx328', 'article-title': 'Relative validity of nutrient intakes assessed by questionnaire, ' '24-hour recalls, and diet records as compared with urinary recovery and ' 'plasma concentration biomarkers: findings for women.', 'volume': '187', 'author': 'Yuan', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Am J Epidemiol'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': 'zoi230479r43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '161', 'DOI': '10.1177/089198879701000407', 'article-title': 'Development and validation of a Structured Telephone Interview for ' 'Dementia Assessment (STIDA): the NIMH Genetics Initiative.', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Go', 'year': '1997', 'journal-title': 'J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': 'zoi230479r44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1612', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03543.x', 'article-title': 'Specific subjective memory complaints in older persons may indicate ' 'poor cognitive function.', 'volume': '59', 'author': 'Amariglio', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'J Am Geriatr Soc'}, { 'issue': '1-2', 'key': 'zoi230479r45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '86', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.019', 'article-title': 'A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and ' 'standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the ' 'general population.', 'volume': '122', 'author': 'Löwe', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'J Affect Disord'}, { 'issue': '9-10', 'key': 'zoi230479r46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1541', 'DOI': '10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0258', 'article-title': 'Multiple imputation in public health research.', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'Zhou', 'year': '2001', 'journal-title': 'Stat Med'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r48', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '258', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.sleep.2019.01.047', 'article-title': 'Prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese healthcare professionals: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis.', 'volume': '67', 'author': 'Qiu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Sleep Med'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r49', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '219', 'DOI': '10.1177/0962280206074463', 'article-title': 'Multiple imputation of discrete and continuous data by fully ' 'conditional specification.', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'van Buuren', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'Stat Methods Med Res'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': 'zoi230479r50', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1706', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41591-022-01909-w', 'article-title': 'Symptoms and risk factors for long COVID in non-hospitalized adults.', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'Subramanian', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nat Med'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': 'zoi230479r51', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1006', 'DOI': '10.1093/aje/kws342', 'article-title': 'Increased prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in adults.', 'volume': '177', 'author': 'Peppard', 'year': '2013', 'journal-title': 'Am J Epidemiol'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': 'zoi230479r52', 'first-page': '246', 'article-title': 'Burden of sleep apnea: rationale, design, and major findings of the ' 'Wisconsin Sleep Cohort study.', 'volume': '108', 'author': 'Young', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'WMJ'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r53', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '50', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.075', 'article-title': 'Poor-sleep is associated with slow recovery from lymphopenia and an ' 'increased need for ICU care in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a ' 'retrospective cohort study.', 'volume': '88', 'author': 'Zhang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Brain Behav Immun'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r54', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.104388', 'article-title': 'Association between chronotype and body mass index: the role of ' 'C-reactive protein and the cortisol response to stress.', 'volume': '109', 'author': 'de Punder', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Psychoneuroendocrinology'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r55', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '40', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.05.014', 'article-title': 'Sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation: a systematic ' 'review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and experimental sleep ' 'deprivation.', 'volume': '80', 'author': 'Irwin', 'year': '2016', 'journal-title': 'Biol Psychiatry'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r56', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '29', 'DOI': '10.1093/sleep/30.1.29', 'article-title': 'C-reactive protein is associated with sleep disordered breathing ' 'independent of adiposity.', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Punjabi', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'Sleep'}, { 'issue': '12, pt 2', 'key': 'zoi230479r57', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'S244', 'DOI': '10.1301/nr.2007.dec.S244-S252', 'article-title': 'Sleep and inflammation.', 'volume': '65', 'author': 'Simpson', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Rev'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'zoi230479r58', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '443', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.joca.2021.11.021', 'article-title': 'Evidence for causal effects of sleep disturbances on risk for ' 'osteoarthritis: a univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization ' 'study.', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Ni', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Osteoarthritis Cartilage'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'zoi230479r59', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1183/13993003.00970-2022', 'article-title': 'Circulating anti-nuclear autoantibodies in COVID-19 survivors predict ' 'long COVID symptoms.', 'volume': '61', 'author': 'Son', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'Eur Respir J'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r60', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101340', 'article-title': 'Sleep, circadian rhythm, and gut microbiota.', 'volume': '53', 'author': 'Matenchuk', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Sleep Med Rev'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': 'zoi230479r61', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1429', 'DOI': '10.3324/haematol.2010.022475', 'article-title': 'Chronic sleep deprivation markedly reduces coagulation factor VII ' 'expression.', 'volume': '95', 'author': 'Pinotti', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'Haematologica'}, { 'issue': '13', 'key': 'zoi230479r62', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4041', 'DOI': '10.1182/bloodadvances.2021006944', 'article-title': 'Impaired exercise capacity in post-COVID-19 syndrome: the role of ' 'VWF-ADAMTS13 axis.', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Prasannan', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Blood Adv'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': 'zoi230479r63', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '991', 'DOI': '10.1093/ije/23.5.991', 'article-title': 'Reproducibility and validity of a self-administered physical activity ' 'questionnaire.', 'volume': '23', 'author': 'Wolf', 'year': '1994', 'journal-title': 'Int J Epidemiol'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': 'zoi230479r64', 'first-page': '570', 'article-title': 'The validity of recalled weight among younger women.', 'volume': '19', 'author': 'Troy', 'year': '1995', 'journal-title': 'Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r12', 'volume-title': 'Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem', 'author': 'Colten', 'year': '2006'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r1', 'unstructured': 'Long COVID or post-COVID conditions. Centers for Disease Control and ' 'Prevention. Accessed August 24, 2022. ' 'https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/long-term-effects/index.html'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r2', 'unstructured': 'Nearly one in five American adults who have had COVID-19 still have ' '“long COVID.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed ' 'August 24, 2022. ' 'https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2022/20220622.htm'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r3', 'unstructured': 'COVID-19 for health professionals: post COVID-19 condition (long COVID). ' 'Government of Canada. Accessed September 22, 2022. ' 'https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/health-professionals/post-covid-19-condition.html'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r4', 'unstructured': 'FAIR Health, Inc. A Detailed Study of Patients With Long-Haul COVID: An ' 'Analysis of Private Healthcare Claims. FAIR Health, Inc; 2021. Accessed ' 'June 7, 2022. ' 'https://digirepo.nlm.nih.gov/master/borndig/9918334383006676/9918334383006676.pdf'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Jones? SE, Maisha? FI, Strausz? SJ, ; FinnGen. The public health impact ' 'of poor sleep on severe COVID-19, influenza and upper respiratory ' 'infections.? medRxiv. Preprint posted online February 17, 2022. ' 'doi:10.1101/2022.02.16.2227105535194621', 'DOI': '10.1101/2022.02.16.22271055'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r37', 'unstructured': 'Leatherby? L. What previous COVID-19 waves tell us about the virus now. ' 'New York Times. October 23, 2021. Accessed April 11, 2023. ' 'https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/10/23/us/covid-surges.html'}, { 'key': 'zoi230479r47', 'unstructured': 'Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How much sleep do I need? ' '2017. Accessed June 8, 2022. ' 'https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/about_sleep/how_much_sleep.html'}], 'container-title': 'JAMA Network Open', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/articlepdf/2805380/wang_2023_oi_230479_1684423433.15861.pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 5, 30]], 'date-time': '2023-05-30T15:32:41Z', 'timestamp': 1685460761000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2805380'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 5, 30]]}, 'references-count': 64, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '5', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2023, 5, 1]]}}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.15885', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2574-3805'], 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'JAMA Netw Open', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 5, 30]]}}
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