Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Antihistamines
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
PPIs
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All antihistamine H1RA studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchAntihistamine H1RAsH1RAs (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta PPIs Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Influence of prior comorbidities and chronic medications use on the risk of COVID-19 in adults: a population-based cohort study in Tarragona, Spain

Vila-Córcoles et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577
Dec 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Case 53% Improvement Relative Risk Antihistamine H1RAs  Vila-Córcoles et al.  Prophylaxis Do antihistamine H1RAs reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 79,083 patients in Spain (March - May 2020) Fewer cases with antihistamine H1RAs (not stat. sig., p=0.052) c19early.org Vila-Córcoles et al., BMJ Open, December 2020 Favorsantihistamine H1RA Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
10th treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00006 from 15 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, recovery, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 79,083 adults aged ≥50 years in Spain showing lower with of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 with antihistamine use, close to statistical significance.
risk of case, 53.0% lower, HR 0.47, p = 0.05, treatment 3,264, control 75,819, adjusted per study, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Vila-Córcoles et al., 10 Dec 2020, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 1 March, 2020 - 23 May, 2020. Contact: esatue.tgn.ics@gencat.c.
This PaperH1RAsAll
Influence of prior comorbidities and chronic medications use on the risk of COVID-19 in adults: a population-based cohort study in Tarragona, Spain
Angel Vila-Córcoles, Olga Ochoa-Gondar, Dr Eva M Satué-Gracia, Cristina Torrente-Fraga, Frederic Gomez-Bertomeu, Angel Vila-Rovira, Immaculada Hospital-Guardiola, Cinta De Diego-Cabanes, Ferran Bejarano-Romero, Josep Basora-Gallisà
BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577
Objective To investigate possible relationships between pre-existing medical conditions (including common comorbidities and chronic medications) and risk for suffering COVID-19 disease in middle-aged and older adults. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting Twelve primary care centres (PCCs) in Tarragona (Spain). Participants 79 083 people (77 676 community-dwelling and 1407 nursing-home residents), who were all individuals aged >50 years affiliated to the 12 participating PCCs. Outcomes Baseline cohort characteristics (age, sex, vaccinations, comorbidities and chronic medications) were established at study start (1st. March 2020) and primary outcome was time to COVID-19 confirmed by PCR among cohort members throughout the epidemic period (from 1st. March 2020 to 23rd. May 2020). Risk for suffering COVID-19 was evaluated by Cox regression, estimating multivariable HRs adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and medications use. Results During the study period, 2324 cohort members were PCR-tested, with 1944 negative and 380 positive results, which means an incidence of 480.5 PCRconfirmed COVID-19 cases per 100 000 persons-period. Assessing the total study cohort, only age (HR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03; p=0.002), nursing-home residence (HR 21.83; 95% CI 16.66 to 28.61; p<0.001) and receiving diuretics (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.76; p=0.026) appeared independently associated with increased risk. Smoking (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.93; p=0.022), ACE inhibitors (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99; p=0.046) and antihistamine (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.01; p=0.052) were associated with a lower risk. Among communitydwelling individuals, cancer (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.24; p=0.035), chronic respiratory disease (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.08 to 3.07; p=0.025) and cardiac disease (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.19; p=0.021) emerged to be also associated with an increased risk. Receiving ACE inhibitors (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.99; p=0.046) and influenza vaccination (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.91; p=0.012) was associated with decreased risk. Conclusion Age, nursing-home residence and multiple comorbidities appear predisposing for COVID-19. Conversely, receiving ACE inhibitors, antihistamine and influenza vaccination could be protective, which should be closely investigated in further studies specifically focused on these concerns. ► This is a population-based cohort study involving 79 083 adults aged ≥50 years in Tarragona (Southern Catalonia, Spain). ► Cohort members were retrospectively followed up across the first wave of COVID-19 epidemic period from 1st. March 2020 to 23rd. May 2020. ► Relationships between PCR-confirmed COVID-19 incidence and chronic comorbidities and chronic medications use were assessed by multivariable Cox regression models. ► Despite the large size of study cohort, the number of events was relatively low, which limits statistical power (especially in subgroup analyses). ► PCR testing was not routinely performed (prioritised for..
Open access Competing interests None declared. Patient consent for publication Not required. Ethics approval The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Institution (Ethics Committee IDIAP Jordi Gol, Barcelona, file 20/065-PCV) and was conducted according to the Helsinki Declaration and Spanish legislation on biomedical studies, data protection and respect for human rights. Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request. Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.
References
Castiglione, Chiriacò, Emdin, Statin therapy in COVID-19 infection, Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother, doi:10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa042
Chang, Ding, Freund, Prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 in a Los Angeles health system
Changeux, Amoura, Rey, A nicotinic hypothesis for Covid-19 with preventive and therapeutic implications, C R Biol, doi:10.5802/crbiol.8
Cook, The importance of hypertension as a risk factor for severe illness and mortality in COVID-19, Anaesthesia, doi:10.1111/anae.15103
De Abajo, Rodríguez-Martín, Lerma, Use of reninangiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital: a case-population study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31030-8
De Lusignan, Dorward, Correa, Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 among patients in the Oxford Royal College of general practitioners research and surveillance centre primary care network: a cross-sectional study, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30371-6
Deng, Yin, Chen, Clinical determinants for fatality of 44,672 patients with COVID-19, Crit Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-020-02902-w
Esler, Esler, Can angiotensin receptor-blocking drugs perhaps be harmful in the COVID-19 pandemic?, J Hypertens, doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000002450
Freedberg, Conigliaro, Wang, Famotidine use is associated with improved clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a propensity score matched retrospective cohort study, Gastroenterology, doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.053
Grasselli, Zangrillo, Zanella, Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy region, Italy, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5394
Guzik, Mohiddin, Dimarco, COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options, Cardiovasc Res, doi:10.1093/cvr/cvaa106
Hernandez, Roman, Pasupuleti, Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19: a living systematic review, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M20-2496
Kai, Kai, Interactions of coronaviruses with ACE2, angiotensin II, and RAS inhibitors-lessons from available evidence and insights into COVID-19, Hypertens Res, doi:10.1038/s41440-020-0455-8
Kreutz, Algharably, Azizi, Hypertension, the renin-angiotensin system, and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for COVID-19, Cardiovasc Res, doi:10.1093/cvr/cvaa097
Liang, Guan, Li, Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 treated in Hubei (epicentre) and outside Hubei (non-epicentre): a nationwide analysis of China, Eur Respir J, doi:10.1183/13993003.00562-2020
Lieberman, Pepper, Naccache, Comparison of Commercially Available and Laboratory-Developed Assays for In Vitro Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Clinical Laboratories, J Clin Microbiol, doi:10.1128/JCM.00821-20
Lippi, Henry, Active smoking is not associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Eur J Intern Med, doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2020.03.014
Meng, Xiao, Zhang, Renin-Angiotensin system inhibitors improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension, Emerg Microbes Infect, doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1746200
Miyara, Tubach, Pourcher, Low incidence of daily active tobacco smoking in patients with symptomatic COVID-19
Reynolds, Adhikari, Pulgarin, Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2008975
Russell, Moss, Rigg, COVID-19 and treatment with NSAIDs and corticosteroids: should we be limiting their use in the clinical setting?, Ecancermedicalscience, doi:10.3332/ecancer.2020.1023
Salem, El-Hennawy, The possible beneficial adjuvant effect of influenza vaccine to minimize the severity of COVID-19, Med Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109752
Sattar, Mcinnes, Mcmurray, Obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection: multiple potential mechanisms, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047659
Simons, Simons, Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress, J Allergy Clin Immunol, doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.005
Ssentongo, Ssentongo, Heilbrunn, Association of cardiovascular disease and 10 other pre-existing comorbidities with COVID-19 mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238215
Testa, Prandoni, Paoletti, Direct oral anticoagulant plasma levels' striking increase in severe COVID-19 respiratory syndrome patients treated with antiviral agents: the Cremona experience, J Thromb Haemost, doi:10.1111/jth.14871
Vahidy, Nicolas, Meeks, Racial and ethnic disparities in SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: analysis of a COVID-19 observational Registry for a diverse US metropolitan population, BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039849
Versmissen, Verdonk, Lafeber, Angiotensin-Converting enzyme-2 in SARS-CoV-2 infection: good or bad?, J Hypertens, doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000002472
Vila-Corcoles, Hospital-Guardiola, Ochoa-Gondar, Rationale and design of the CAPAMIS study: effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination against community-acquired pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, BMC Public Health, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-25
Vila-Corcoles, Satue-Gracia, Ochoa-Gondar, Use of distinct anti-hypertensive drugs and risk for COVID-19 among hypertensive people: a population-based cohort study in southern Catalonia, Spain, J Clin Hypertens, doi:10.1111/jch.13948
Wan, Shang, Graham, Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan: an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus, J Virol, doi:10.1128/JVI.00127-20
Wang, Jiang, He, Early, low-dose and short-term application of corticosteroid treatment in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia: single-center experience from Wuhan
Yang, Zheng, Gou, Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017
Zhang, Li, Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2, Science, doi:10.1126/science.abb2762
Zhang, Zhu, Cai, Association of inpatient use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with mortality among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19, Circ Res, doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317134
Zhou, Yu, Du, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 6, 8]], 'date-time': '2024-06-08T21:16:15Z', 'timestamp': 1717881375190}, 'reference-count': 41, 'publisher': 'BMJ', 'issue': '12', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 9]], 'date-time': '2020-12-09T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1607472000000}, 'content-version': 'unspecified', 'delay-in-days': 8, 'URL': 'http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/'}], 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100004587', 'name': 'Instituto de Salud Carlos III', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['COV20/00852']}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['bmj.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:sec><jats:title>Objective</jats:title><jats:p>To investigate possible relationships ' 'between pre-existing medical conditions (including common comorbidities and chronic ' 'medications) and risk for suffering COVID-19 disease in middle-aged and older ' 'adults.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Design</jats:title><jats:p>Population-based ' 'retrospective cohort ' 'study.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Setting</jats:title><jats:p>Twelve primary ' 'care centres (PCCs) in Tarragona ' '(Spain).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Participants</jats:title><jats:p>79\u2009' '083 people (77\u2009676 community-dwelling and 1407 nursing-home residents), who were all ' 'individuals aged &gt;50 years affiliated to the 12 participating ' 'PCCs.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Outcomes</jats:title><jats:p>Baseline cohort ' 'characteristics (age, sex, vaccinations, comorbidities and chronic medications) were ' 'established at study start (1st. March 2020) and primary outcome was time to COVID-19 ' 'confirmed by PCR among cohort members throughout the epidemic period (from 1st. March 2020 to ' '23rd. May 2020). Risk for suffering COVID-19 was evaluated by Cox regression, estimating ' 'multivariable HRs adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and medications ' 'use.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>During the study ' 'period, 2324 cohort members were PCR-tested, with 1944 negative and 380 positive results, ' 'which means an incidence of 480.5 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases per 100\u2009000 ' 'persons-period. Assessing the total study cohort, only age (HR 1.02; 95%\u2009CI 1.01 to ' '1.03; p=0.002), nursing-home residence (HR 21.83; 95%\u2009CI 16.66 to 28.61; p&lt;0.001) and ' 'receiving diuretics (HR 1.35; 95%\u2009CI 1.04 to 1.76; p=0.026) appeared independently ' 'associated with increased risk. Smoking (HR 0.62; 95%\u2009CI 0.41 to 0.93; p=0.022), ACE ' 'inhibitors (HR 0.68; 95%\u2009CI 0.47 to 0.99; p=0.046) and antihistamine (HR 0.47; 95%\u2009' 'CI 0.22 to 1.01; p=0.052) were associated with a lower risk. Among community-dwelling ' 'individuals, cancer (HR 1.52; 95%\u2009CI 1.03 to 2.24; p=0.035), chronic respiratory disease ' '(HR 1.82; 95%\u2009CI 1.08 to 3.07; p=0.025) and cardiac disease (HR 1.53; 95%\u2009CI 1.06 ' 'to 2.19; p=0.021) emerged to be also associated with an increased risk. Receiving ACE ' 'inhibitors (HR 0.66; 95%\u2009CI 0.44 to 0.99; p=0.046) and influenza vaccination (HR 0.63; ' '95%\u2009CI 0.44 to 0.91; p=0.012) was associated with decreased ' 'risk.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>Age, ' 'nursing-home residence and multiple comorbidities appear predisposing for COVID-19. ' 'Conversely, receiving ACE inhibitors, antihistamine and influenza vaccination could be ' 'protective, which should be closely investigated in further studies specifically focused on ' 'these concerns.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 10]], 'date-time': '2020-12-10T14:08:03Z', 'timestamp': 1607609283000}, 'page': 'e041577', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/crossmarkpolicy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 30, 'title': 'Influence of prior comorbidities and chronic medications use on the risk of COVID-19 in adults: ' 'a population-based cohort study in Tarragona, Spain', 'prefix': '10.1136', 'volume': '10', 'author': [ {'given': 'Angel', 'family': 'Vila-Córcoles', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Olga', 'family': 'Ochoa-Gondar', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1559-6778', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Eva M.', 'family': 'Satué-Gracia', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Cristina', 'family': 'Torrente-Fraga', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Frederic', 'family': 'Gomez-Bertomeu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Angel', 'family': 'Vila-Rovira', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'Immaculada', 'family': 'Hospital-Guardiola', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Cinta', 'family': 'de Diego-Cabanes', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ferran', 'family': 'Bejarano-Romero', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Josep', 'family': 'Basora-Gallisà', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '239', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 10]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1183/13993003.00562-2020', 'article-title': 'Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised patients with ' 'COVID-19 treated in Hubei (epicentre) and outside Hubei ' '(non-epicentre): a nationwide analysis of China', 'volume': '55', 'author': 'Liang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur Respir J'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1574', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.5394', 'article-title': 'Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with ' 'SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy region, Italy', 'volume': '323', 'author': 'Grasselli', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1034', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30371-6', 'article-title': 'Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 among patients in the Oxford Royal College ' 'of general practitioners research and surveillance centre primary care ' 'network: a cross-sectional study', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'de Lusignan', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Chang TS , Ding Y , Freund MK , et al . Prior diagnoses and medications ' 'as risk factors for COVID-19 in a Los Angeles health system. Preprint. ' 'medRxiv 2020.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.07.03.20145581'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0238215'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039849'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.9', 'unstructured': 'IDESCAT . Statistical Institute of Catalonia. Available: ' 'https://www.idescat.cat/?lang=en [Accessed 2 Oct 2020].'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.10', 'unstructured': 'World Medical Association . Wma Declaration of Helsinki – ethical ' 'principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available: ' 'https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wmadeclaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/ ' '[Accessed 14 May 2020].'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/1471-2458-10-25'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.12', 'unstructured': 'Generalitat de Catalunya . Sub-direcció General de Vigil ncia i Resposta ' 'a Emergències de Salut Pública. Procediment d’actuació enfront de casos ' 'd’infecció pel nou coronavirus SARSCoV-2. Available: ' 'https://canalsalut.gencat.cat/web/.content/_A-Z/C/coronavirus-2019-ncov/material-divulgatiu/procediment-actuacio-coronavirus.pdf ' '[Accessed 16 May 2020].'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1128/JCM.00821-20', 'article-title': 'Comparison of Commercially Available and Laboratory-Developed Assays ' 'for In Vitro Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Clinical Laboratories', 'volume': '58', 'author': 'Lieberman', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Microbiol'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.14', 'unstructured': 'WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology . ATC/DDD index ' '2020, 2020. Available: https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/ [Accessed 12 ' 'May 2020].'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1379', 'DOI': '10.1111/jch.13948', 'article-title': 'Use of distinct anti-hypertensive drugs and risk for COVID-19 among ' 'hypertensive people: a population-based cohort study in southern ' 'Catalonia, Spain', 'volume': '22', 'author': 'Vila-Corcoles', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Hypertens'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.16', 'unstructured': 'Gobierno de España, Secretaría General de Sanidad y Consumo, Dirección ' 'General de Salud Pública, Calidad e innovación, Centro de Coordinación ' 'de Alertas y Emergencias Sanitarias . Información científica-técnica. ' 'Enfermedad por coronavirus, COVID19. Available: ' 'https://www.mscbs.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/ccayes/alertasActual/nCov/documentos/20200417_ITCoronavirus.pdf ' '[Accessed 5 May 2020].'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '179', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13054-020-02902-w', 'article-title': 'Clinical determinants for fatality of 44,672 patients with COVID-19', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'Deng', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Crit Care'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1666', 'DOI': '10.1093/cvr/cvaa106', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk ' 'assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options', 'volume': '116', 'author': 'Guzik', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cardiovasc Res'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '976', 'DOI': '10.1111/anae.15103', 'article-title': 'The importance of hypertension as a risk factor for severe illness and ' 'mortality in COVID-19', 'volume': '75', 'author': 'Cook', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Anaesthesia'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '4', 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047659', 'article-title': 'Obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection: multiple ' 'potential mechanisms', 'volume': '142', 'author': 'Sattar', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Circulation'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.21', 'unstructured': 'Miyara M , Tubach F , Pourcher V , et al . Low incidence of daily active ' 'tobacco smoking in patients with symptomatic COVID-19. Qeios ' 'https://www.qeios.com/read/WPP19W.3'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejim.2020.03.014'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.5802/crbiol.8'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e00127', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.00127-20', 'article-title': 'Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan: an analysis ' 'based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus', 'volume': '94', 'author': 'Wan', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Virol'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1126/science.abb2762'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '781', 'DOI': '10.1097/HJH.0000000000002450', 'article-title': 'Can angiotensin receptor-blocking drugs perhaps be harmful in the ' 'COVID-19 pandemic?', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'Esler', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Hypertens'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1196', 'DOI': '10.1097/HJH.0000000000002472', 'article-title': 'Angiotensin-Converting enzyme-2 in SARS-CoV-2 infection: good or bad?', 'volume': '38', 'author': 'Versmissen', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Hypertens'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31030-8'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2008975'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '648', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41440-020-0455-8', 'article-title': 'Interactions of coronaviruses with ACE2, angiotensin II, and RAS ' 'inhibitors-lessons from available evidence and insights into COVID-19', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'Kai', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Hypertens Res'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '757', 'DOI': '10.1080/22221751.2020.1746200', 'article-title': 'Renin-Angiotensin system inhibitors improve the clinical outcomes of ' 'COVID-19 patients with hypertension', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'Meng', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Emerg Microbes Infect'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1688', 'DOI': '10.1093/cvr/cvaa097', 'article-title': 'Hypertension, the renin-angiotensin system, and the risk of lower ' 'respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for COVID-19', 'volume': '116', 'author': 'Kreutz', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cardiovasc Res'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1671', 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317134', 'article-title': 'Association of inpatient use of angiotensin-converting enzyme ' 'inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with mortality among ' 'patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19', 'volume': '126', 'author': 'Zhang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Circ Res'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/jth.14871'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '258', 'DOI': '10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa042', 'article-title': 'Statin therapy in COVID-19 infection', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Castiglione', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.36', 'unstructured': 'Wang Y , Jiang W , He Q , et al . Early, low-dose and short-term ' 'application of corticosteroid treatment in patients with severe COVID-19 ' 'pneumonia: single-center experience from Wuhan, China. medRxiv.'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.3332/ecancer.2020.1023', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 and treatment with NSAIDs and corticosteroids: should we be ' 'limiting their use in the clinical setting?', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Russell', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ecancermedicalscience'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '287', 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-2496', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis of ' 'COVID-19: a living systematic review', 'volume': '173', 'author': 'Hernandez', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.005'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.053'}, { 'key': '2020121005301319000_10.12.e041577.41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109752'}], 'container-title': 'BMJ Open', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://syndication.highwire.org/content/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 10]], 'date-time': '2020-12-10T14:08:40Z', 'timestamp': 1607609320000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12]]}, 'references-count': 41, 'journal-issue': { 'issue': '12', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 10]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041577', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2044-6055', '2044-6055'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'BMJ Open', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12]]}}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit