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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

N-Acetyl Cysteine Restores the Diminished Activity of the Antioxidant Enzymatic System Caused by SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Preliminary Findings

Soto et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16040591, NCT04570254
Apr 2023  
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13th treatment shown to reduce risk in February 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.000034 from 24 studies, recognized in 3 countries.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Prospective analysis of 16 COVID-19 patients treated with NAC and 20 healthy controls, showing that NAC may help restore diminished activity of the antioxidant enzymatic system in patients with COVID-19.
Soto et al., 14 Apr 2023, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, trial NCT04570254 (history). Contact: gualanv@yahoo.com (corresponding author), pertorisr@yahoo.com.mx.
This PaperN-acetylcys..All
N-Acetyl Cysteine Restores the Diminished Activity of the Antioxidant Enzymatic System Caused by SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Preliminary Findings
María Elena Soto, Linaloe Manzano-Pech, Adrían Palacios-Chavarría, Rafael Ricardo Valdez-Vázquez, Verónica Guarner-Lans, Israel Pérez-Torres
Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph16040591
SARS-CoV-2 infects type II pneumocytes and disrupts redox homeostasis by overproducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and it restores the loss of redox homeostasis associated to viral infections. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with NAC on the enzymatic antioxidant system in serum from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated the enzymatic activities of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), -S-transferase (GST), and reductase (GR) by spectrophotometry and the concentrations of the glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiols, nitrites (NO 2 -), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in serum. The activity of the extracellular super oxide dismutase (ecSOD) was determined by native polyacrylamide gels, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) was measured by ELISA. A decrease in the activities of the ecSOD, TrxR, GPx, GST GR, (p = 0 ≤ 0.1), and the GSH, TAC, thiols, and NO 2 -(p ≤ 0.001) concentrations and an increase in LPO and 3-NT (p = 0.001) concentrations were found in COVID-19 patients vs. healthy subjects. The treatment with NAC as an adjuvant therapy may contribute to a reduction in the OS associated to the infection by SARS-CoV-2 through the generation of GSH. GSH promotes the metabolic pathways that depend on it, thus contributing to an increase in TAC and to restore redox homeostasis.
Institutional Review Board Statement: The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by ethical approval from the local ethics committee on 19 August 2020 (Control-9867/2020, register REG. CONBIOETICA-09 CEI-011-20160627). A written informed consent for enrollment or consent to use patient data was obtained from each patient or their legal surrogate. The protocol was registered (TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 04570254). Informed Consent Statement: The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interest or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/ph16040591', 'ISSN': ['1424-8247'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph16040591', 'abstract': '<jats:p>SARS-CoV-2 infects type II pneumocytes and disrupts redox homeostasis by ' 'overproducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of the ' 'synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and it restores the loss of redox homeostasis associated to ' 'viral infections. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with NAC on ' 'the enzymatic antioxidant system in serum from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated ' 'the enzymatic activities of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ' '-S-transferase (GST), and reductase (GR) by spectrophotometry and the concentrations of the ' 'glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiols, nitrites (NO2–), and lipid ' 'peroxidation (LPO) in serum. The activity of the extracellular super oxide dismutase (ecSOD) ' 'was determined by native polyacrylamide gels, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) was measured by ' 'ELISA. A decrease in the activities of the ecSOD, TrxR, GPx, GST GR, (p = 0 ≤ 0.1), and the ' 'GSH, TAC, thiols, and NO2– (p ≤ 0.001) concentrations and an increase in LPO and 3-NT (p = ' '0.001) concentrations were found in COVID-19 patients vs. healthy subjects. The treatment ' 'with NAC as an adjuvant therapy may contribute to a reduction in the OS associated to the ' 'infection by SARS-CoV-2 through the generation of GSH. GSH promotes the metabolic pathways ' 'that depend on it, thus contributing to an increase in TAC and to restore redox ' 'homeostasis.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['ph16040591'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1332-2888', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología ' 'Ignacio Chávez, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico ' 'City 14080, Mexico'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Soto', 'given': 'María Elena', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Cardiovascular Biomedicine, Instituto Nacional de ' 'Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City 14080, Mexico'}], 'family': 'Manzano-Pech', 'given': 'Linaloe', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Critical Care Unit of the Temporal COVID-19 Unit, Citibanamex ' 'Center, Mexico City 11200, Mexico'}], 'family': 'Palacios-Chavarría', 'given': 'Adrían', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Critical Care Unit of the Temporal COVID-19 Unit, Citibanamex ' 'Center, Mexico City 11200, Mexico'}], 'family': 'Valdez-Vázquez', 'given': 'Rafael Ricardo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2655-7590', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Physiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología ' 'Ignacio Chávez, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico ' 'City 14080, Mexico'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Guarner-Lans', 'given': 'Verónica', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6510-2954', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología ' 'Ignacio Chávez, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico ' 'City 14080, Mexico'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Pérez-Torres', 'given': 'Israel', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Pharmaceuticals', 'container-title-short': 'Pharmaceuticals', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 14]], 'date-time': '2023-04-14T14:29:16Z', 'timestamp': 1681482556000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 14]], 'date-time': '2023-04-14T14:40:57Z', 'timestamp': 1681483257000}, 'funder': [{'award': ['312167'], 'name': 'Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) México'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 15]], 'date-time': '2023-04-15T04:50:08Z', 'timestamp': 1681534208293}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issue': '4', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 14]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 14]], 'date-time': '2023-04-14T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1681430400000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/16/4/591/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '591', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 14]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 14]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.3389/fphys.2021.667024', 'article-title': 'Alteration in the lipid profile and the desaturases activity in ' 'patients with severe pneumonia by SARS-CoV-2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '667024', 'journal-title': 'Front. 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Late treatment
is less effective
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