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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 46% unadjusted Improvement Relative Risk Shehab et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 253 patients in multiple countries (Sep 2020 - Mar 2021) Lower severe cases with vitamin D (not stat. sig., p=0.2) Shehab et al., Tropical J. Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19 infection
Shehab et al., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13
Shehab et al., Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19.., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13
Feb 2022   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective survey-based analysis of 349 COVID-19 patients, showing a lower risk of severe cases with vitamin D, zinc, turmeric, and honey prophylaxis in unadjusted analysis, without statistical significance. REC/UG/2020/03. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of severe case, 45.7% lower, RR 0.54, p = 0.20, treatment 6 of 90 (6.7%), control 20 of 163 (12.3%), NNT 18, unadjusted, severe vs. mild cases.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Shehab et al., 28 Feb 2022, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, survey, 7 authors, study period September 2020 - March 2021, dosage not specified.
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Abstract: Shehab et al Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research February 2022; 21 (2): 313-322 ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. Available online at Original Research Article Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19 infection Naglaa Gamil Shehab1,2*, Sareh Dortaj3, Mariam Othman3, Esraa Mostafa3, Parisa Rezvani3, Fatimah Alshawi3, Lilyan Al Ahmad3 1 Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapeutics Department, Dubai Pharmacy College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 3Dubai Pharmacy College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2 *For correspondence: Email:; Tel: 00971-555811716 Sent for review: 20 June 2021 Revised accepted: 5 February 2022 Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of natural remedies and supplements on the progress of and recovery from COVID-19 infection, and the role of safety precautions in controlling the spread of its causative pathogen. Methods: A questionnaire was designed and electronically distributed among previously infected individuals across countries. The survey included questions about the participants’ demographic information, medical history, how they were infected, symptoms they have experienced, where they were isolated, the degree of precautions taken against the virus, and their consumption of natural remedies or supplements before and during the infection period. Results: The results showed that natural remedies and supplements are widely consumed among COVID-19 patients both before and during infection, either as a single remedy or in combination with other remedies. As the age of the participants increased, the incidence of their hospitalization increased. Significant results were observed when comparing the severity of infection with the number of natural remedies and supplements taken before (P 0.000) and during the infection (P 0.003). Conclusion: Increasing the intake of natural remedies and/or supplements before and during COVID19 infection lowers the severity of the infection. Vitamin C, honey, and citrus fruits such as orange and lemon were the major remedies consumed before and during infection. A large number of the participants that experienced severe COVID-19 conditions, did not consume any natural remedies or supplements. Keywords: Immunity; COVID-19; Natural remedies; Supplements; Risk of hospitalization This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (, which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts
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