Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19 infection
Shehab et al.
, Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19..
, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13
Retrospective survey-based analysis of 349 COVID-19 patients, showing a lower risk of severe cases with vitamin D, zinc, turmeric, and honey prophylaxis in unadjusted analysis, without statistical significance. REC/UG/2020/03.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of severe case, 45.7% lower, RR 0.54, p = 0.20, treatment 6 of 90 (6.7%), control 20 of 163 (12.3%), NNT 18, unadjusted, severe vs. mild cases.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Shehab et al., 28 Feb 2022, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, survey, 7 authors, study period September 2020 - March 2021, dosage not specified.
Abstract: Shehab et al
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research February 2022; 21 (2): 313-322
ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic)
© Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria.
Available online at http://www.tjpr.org
Original Research Article
Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and
supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19
Naglaa Gamil Shehab1,2*, Sareh Dortaj3, Mariam Othman3, Esraa Mostafa3,
Parisa Rezvani3, Fatimah Alshawi3, Lilyan Al Ahmad3
Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapeutics Department, Dubai Pharmacy College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates,
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 3Dubai Pharmacy College, Dubai, United
*For correspondence: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: 00971-555811716
Sent for review: 20 June 2021
Revised accepted: 5 February 2022
Purpose: To investigate the effect of natural remedies and supplements on the progress of and
recovery from COVID-19 infection, and the role of safety precautions in controlling the spread of its
Methods: A questionnaire was designed and electronically distributed among previously infected
individuals across countries. The survey included questions about the participants’ demographic
information, medical history, how they were infected, symptoms they have experienced, where they
were isolated, the degree of precautions taken against the virus, and their consumption of natural
remedies or supplements before and during the infection period.
Results: The results showed that natural remedies and supplements are widely consumed among
COVID-19 patients both before and during infection, either as a single remedy or in combination with
other remedies. As the age of the participants increased, the incidence of their hospitalization
increased. Significant results were observed when comparing the severity of infection with the number
of natural remedies and supplements taken before (P 0.000) and during the infection (P 0.003).
Conclusion: Increasing the intake of natural remedies and/or supplements before and during COVID19 infection lowers the severity of the infection. Vitamin C, honey, and citrus fruits such as orange and
lemon were the major remedies consumed before and during infection. A large number of the
participants that experienced severe COVID-19 conditions, did not consume any natural remedies or
Keywords: Immunity; COVID-19; Natural remedies; Supplements; Risk of hospitalization
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions
for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,
International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African
Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals
(DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.