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The host-targeted antiviral drug Zapnometinib exhibits a high barrier to the development of SARS-CoV-2 resistance

Schreiber et al., Antiviral Research, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2024.105840
Mar 2024  
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In Vitro study showing that molnupiravir and paxlovid induced resistant variants in SARS-CoV-2 during serial passaging, while the host-directed antiviral zapnometinib did not.
Authors found that molnupiravir did not lead to abrogated viral replication by genomic "error catastrophe" as postulated, but rather accelerated viral evolution leading to reduced drug susceptibility. Paxlovid treatment specifically selected viruses bearing the NSP5 mutations E166V+T21I and S144A. In contrast, zapnometinib treatment did not induce any specific mutations or reduced drug susceptibility even after 30 passages in Calu-3 and CaCo2 cells.
Study covers molnupiravir and paxlovid.
Schreiber et al., 2 Mar 2024, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact: ludwigs@uni-muenster.de.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperPaxlovidAll
The host-targeted antiviral drug Zapnometinib exhibits a high barrier to the development of SARS-CoV-2 resistance
André Schreiber, Franziska Rodner, Nicole Oberberg, Darisuren Anhlan, Stefan Bletz, Alexander Mellmann, Oliver Planz, Stephan Ludwig
Antiviral Research, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2024.105840
Host targeting antiviral drugs (HTA) are directed against cellular mechanisms which can be exploited by viruses. These mechanisms are essential for viral replication, because missing functions cannot be compensated by the virus. However, this assumption needs experimental proof. Here we compared the HTA Zapnometinib (ZMN), with direct acting antivirals (DAA) (Remdesivir (RDV), Molnupiravir (MPV), Nirmatrelvir (NTV), Ritonavir (RTV), Paxlovid PAX)), in terms of their potency to induce reduced drug susceptibilities in SARS-CoV-2. During serial passage of δ-B1.617.2 adaptation to all DAAs occurred, while the inhibitory capacity of ZMN was not altered. Known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for partial resistances were found for RDV, NTV and PAX. Additionally, the high mutagenic potential of MPV was confirmed and decreased drug efficacies were found for the first time. Reduced DAA efficacy did not alter the inhibitory potential of ZMN. These results show that ZMN confers a high barrier towards the development of viral resistance and has the potential to act against partially DAA-insensitive viruses.
Ethics statement This study does not reveal new information about the creation of resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants, nor about the resistant introducing potential of SNPs against licensed anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. All methods used in this study and all mutations found to induce RDV and NTV / PAX reduced susceptibilities were described before. The malicious release of these resistant virus variants would not pose a high risk, as these viruses are not fully but partially resistant and do not possess cross-resistances to other antiviral drugs. Lastly, resistant viruses did not show a replication benefit in a drug-free environment. The necessity and safety of the J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f conducted experiments was discussed and confirmed during a risk assessment meeting with the independent bio-risk consortium of the German Federal Research Institute for Animal Health (Friedrich-Loeffler-Insitute, Greifswald-Riems). Declaration of interests ☒ The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. ☐The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests:
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