Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  C19 studies: Vitamin A  Vitamin A   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -282% Improvement Relative Risk Sarohan et al. Vitamin A for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with vitamin A beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 27 patients in Turkey Higher mortality with vitamin A, but no group details Sarohan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.30.21250844 Favors vitamin A Favors control
Retinol Depletion in Severe COVID-19
Sarohan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.30.21250844 (Preprint)
Sarohan et al., Retinol Depletion in Severe COVID-19, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.30.21250844 (Preprint)
Feb 2021   Source   PDF  
  All Studies   Meta
Retrospective 27 severe COVID-19 patients and 23 non-COVID-19 patients, showing significantly lower vitamin A levels in COVID-19 patients (0.37mg/L vs. 0.52 mg/L, p<0.001). 10 of 27 COVID-19 patients received vitamin A, with higher mortality. Group details are not provided but authors note that 8 of 10 had comorbidities. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details, comments suggest significant group differences and confounding.
risk of death, 282.5% higher, RR 3.83, p = 0.001, treatment 9 of 10 (90.0%), control 4 of 17 (23.5%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sarohan et al., 1 Feb 2021, retrospective, Turkey, preprint, 4 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin AAll
Abstract: medRxiv preprint doi:; this version posted February 1, 2021. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license . Retinol Depletion in Severe COVID-19 1. Aziz Rodan Sarohan* 2. Hakan Akelma 3. Eşref Araç 4. Özgür Aslan Abstract Background and Purpose: Vitamin A is depleted during infections. Vitamin A has been used successfully in measles, RSV and AIDS patients and is an effective vaccine adjuvant. In this study, low retinol levels were found in patients with severe COVID-19. Retinoid signaling impairment in COVID-19 disrupts Type-I interferon synthesis. Material and Method: Two groups were formed in the study. The patient group consisted of 27 (Group 1) severe COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit with respiratory failure, and the control group consisted of 23 (Group 2) patients without COVID19 symptoms. Serum retinol levels were analyzed by ELIZA and HPLC in both groups. Findings: Retinol levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group (P <0.001). There was no difference in retinol between two different age groups in the patient group (P> 0.05). There was no significant difference in retinol between men and women (P> 0.05). Comorbidity did not affect serum retinol levels (P >0.05). Conclusion: Serum retinol levels were low in patients with severe COVID-19. Drugs preventing retinol excretion were not stopped in the patient group. Some patients took vitamin A externally. Despite this, retinol was low in COVID-19 patients. Retinol depletion impairs Type-I interferon synthesis by impairing retinoid signaling. Retinoid signaling may be the main pathogenetic disorder in COVID-19. This pathogenesis can serve as a guide for adjuvants, drug targets, and candidate drugs. Retinol, retinoic acid derivatives, and some CYP450 inhibitors may work on COVID-19. Keywords: Retinol; Retinoid; Retinoic acid; Type-I IFN; RIG-I; CYP450; COVID-19; Retinoid Signaling
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop