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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 24% Improvement Relative Risk Zinc for COVID-19  Ramos et al.  Sufficiency Are zinc levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 20 patients in Brazil Study underpowered to detect differences Ramos et al., Global J. Health Science, Nov 2021 Favors zinc Favors control

Vitamin D, Zinc and Iron in Adult Patients with Covid-19 and Their Action in the Immune Response as Biomarkers

Ramos et al., Global Journal of Health Science, doi:10.5539/gjhs.v14n1p1
Nov 2021  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000027 from 43 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 13 COVID-19 patients and 7 controls in Brazil, showing no significant difference in zinc deficiency.
Study covers vitamin D and zinc.
risk of case, 23.6% lower, RR 0.76, p = 0.64, high zinc levels (≥70μg/dL) 5 of 9 (55.6%), low zinc levels (<70μg/dL) 8 of 11 (72.7%), NNT 5.8.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ramos et al., 15 Nov 2021, retrospective, Brazil, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Vitamin D, Zinc and Iron in Adult Patients with Covid-19 and Their Action in the Immune Response as Biomarkers
Eliza Miranda Ramos, Emerson Luiz Lima Araújo, Francisco José Mendes Dos Reis, Igor Domingos De Souza, Gilberto Gonçalves Facco, Iara Barbosa Ramos, Pamella Aline Miranda Teodoro, Antônio Carlos De Abreu, Alessandro Carvalho Da Fonseca, Ernani Mendes Da Fonseca Junior, Valter Aragão Do Nascimento
Global Journal of Health Science, doi:10.5539/gjhs.v14n1p1
COVID-19 in 2020 brought challenges to the Brazilian public health system with an emerging virus with respiratory contagion called SARS-CoV-2. There are few studies in Brazil and in some countries, on the increased incidence of certain viral respiratory infections, including H1N1 and coronavirus and their association with low levels of vitamin D, zinc and iron. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the deficit of vitamin D, zinc and iron has an impact on the infectious process of patients with COVID-19 and to establish new forms of prevention for the worsening of COVID-19 in the human body. Data were collected from medical records and test results from patients being followed up during the treatment period for COVID-19. Patients with low blood levels of vitamin D, zinc and iron during the treatment period of COVID-19 had a higher percentage of worsening and complications requiring hospitalization in intensive care beds. The ingestion of vitamin D, zinc and iron in the treatment period of patients with COVID-19 in addition to being an immunological protector against SARS-CoV-2 and alleviating the process of worsening the disease can also act as a biomarker in cases of this disease.
Author Contributions Conceituação: E.M.R. and V.A.N.; concepção e síntese de compostos, E.M.R. and V.A. Sample Availability Samples of the compounds are available from the authors. Competing Interests Statement The authors declare that there are no competing or potential conflicts of interest.
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