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A Pilot Study on Oxidative Stress during the Recovery Phase in Critical COVID-19 Patients in a Rehabilitation Facility: Potential Utility of the PAOT® Technology for Assessing Total Anti-Oxidative Capacity

Pincemail et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines11051308
Apr 2023  
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Analysis of 12 COVID-19 ICU patients showing vitamin C levels significantly below the reference range, and remaining low 2 months after discharge.
Pincemail et al., 28 Apr 2023, Belgium, peer-reviewed, 16 authors.
Contact: (corresponding author).
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A Pilot Study on Oxidative Stress during the Recovery Phase in Critical COVID-19 Patients in a Rehabilitation Facility: Potential Utility of the PAOT® Technology for Assessing Total Anti-Oxidative Capacity
Joël Pincemail, Anne-Françoise Rousseau, Jean-François Kaux, Jean-Paul Cheramy-Bien, Christine Bruyère, Jeanine Prick, David Stern, Mouna-Messaouda Kaci, Benoît Maertens De Noordhout, Adelin Albert, Céline Eubelen, Caroline Le Goff, Benoît Misset, Etienne Cavalier, Corinne Charlier, Smail Meziane
Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines11051308
Background: Oxidative stress (OS) could cause various COVID-19 complications. Recently, we have developed the Pouvoir AntiOxydant Total (PAOT®) technology for reflecting the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of biological samples. We aimed to investigate systemic oxidative stress status (OSS) and to evaluate the utility of PAOT®for assessing TAC during the recovery phase in critical COVID-19 patients in a rehabilitation facility. Materials and Methods: In a total of 12 critical COVID-19 patients in rehabilitation, 19 plasma OSS biomarkers were measured: antioxidants, TAC, trace elements, oxidative damage to lipids, and inflammatory biomarkers. TAC level was measured in plasma, saliva, skin, and urine, using PAOT and expressed as PAOT-Plasma, -Saliva, -Skin, and -Urine scores, respectively. Plasma OSS biomarker levels were compared with levels from previous studies on hospitalized COVID-19 patients and with the reference population. Correlations between four PAOT scores and plasma OSS biomarker levels were analyzed. Results: During the recovery phase, plasma levels in antioxidants (γ-tocopherol, β-carotene, total glutathione, vitamin C and thiol proteins) were significantly lower than reference intervals, whereas total hydroperoxides and myeloperoxidase (a marker of inflammation) were significantly higher. Copper negatively correlated with total hydroperoxides (r = 0.95, p = 0.001). A similar, deeply modified OSS was already observed in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. TAC evaluated in saliva, urine, and skin correlated negatively with copper and with plasma total hydroperoxides. To conclude, the systemic OSS, determined using a large number of biomarkers, was always significantly increased in cured COVID-19 patients during their recovery phase. The less costly evaluation of TAC using an electrochemical method could potentially represent a good alternative to the individual analysis of biomarkers linked to pro-oxidants.
Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https: // Figure S1 : Individual plasma concentrations of antioxidants observed in COVID-19 patients as compared to CHU Liège reference intervals. LRV: lower reference value; URV: upper reference value. Conflicts of Interest: The authors from academic institutions declare no conflict of interest. IEA had no role in the design of the study, the interpretation of data, or the decision to publish the results in Biomedicines.
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