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Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity of COVID-19? A retrospective study

Mohseni et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-11-2020-0421
Aug 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Case 12% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Mohseni et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin D reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 603 patients in Iran Fewer cases with vitamin D (not stat. sig., p=0.095) Mohseni et al., Nutrition & Food Science, Aug 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments.
Retrospective 603 patients in Iran, 192 taking vitamin D supplements, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases in unadjusted results. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.015.
Although the 12% fewer cases is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 17% fewer cases [9‑24%] from meta analysis of the 30 cases results to date.
This is the 45th of 122 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 587 sextillion).
30 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000032.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers vitamin C and vitamin D.
risk of case, 12.4% lower, RR 0.88, p = 0.09, treatment 99 of 192 (51.6%), control 242 of 411 (58.9%), NNT 14.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mohseni et al., 4 Aug 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, dosage not specified.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Are history of dietary intake and food habits of patients with clinical symptoms of COVID 19 different from healthy controls? A case–control study
Houra Mohseni, Shirin Amini, Behnaz Abiri, Mojtaba Kalantar, Masoumeh Kaydani, Barat Barati, Elham Pirabbasi, Faezeh Bahrami
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.021
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that put unprecedented significant strain on clinical services and healthcare systems. The aim of the present research was to assess dietary food groups and also food habits of patients with clinical symptoms of COVID 19 and healthy controls. Methods: This caseecontrol research was carried out on 505 participants (279 subjects with clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and 226 controls), in age 18e65 years. Dietary food group's intake last year was investigated by a food frequency questionnaire. Food habits were asked by a general information questionnaire. The strength of the association between food group's intakes with the odds ratios (ORs) of COVID-19 was assessed using Logistic regression models. Results: After adjusting for physical activity in the logistic regression models, intake of dough and yogurt had a significantly protective role on occurrence of COVID19 (OR ¼ 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) ¼ 0.44e0.87; P ¼ 0.006) (OR ¼ 0.74; 95% CI ¼ 0.56e0.98; P ¼ 0.044), respectively. No significant differences were seen in food habits between the two groups in the last year ago. Conclusions: High risk population for COVID19, advised to consume enough amount of yogurt and dough at the time of this pandemic.
Declaration of competing interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Abbreviations Ethics approval and consent to participate The protocol of study was approved, by the Medical Ethics Committee at the Shoushtar faculty of medical science according to the 2013 Helsinki Declaration (Registration No: IR.SHOUSHTAR.-REC.1399.015). All participants read and signed the consent form before their inclusion in the study. Consent for publication Not applicable. Author contributions H Mohseni and S Amini contributed significantly, in the conception and design of the research, analysis of data and interpretation, also, in the writing and critical revision of the manuscript. B Abiri, M Kalantar, B Barati and E Pirabbasi contributed to the critical revision of the manuscript. M Kaidani and F Bahrami contributed to the design of the research. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript before submitting it.
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This paper ' 'aims to assess the role of body mass index (BMI) and nutritional supplements on the severity ' 'of COVID-19.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title content-type="abstract-subheading">Design/methodology/approach</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>This research was conducted on 603 participants (in five groups including: exposure ' 'to virus and healthy, COVID-19 positive patients with severity of mild, moderate, severe and ' 'death from COVID-19), in age 18 to 65\u2009years. Demographic data and history of nutritional ' 'supplements were asked. Anthropometric measurements were measured in a healthy group and in a ' "patient. They were collected by referring to patients' medical records.</jats:p>\n" '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title content-type="abstract-subheading">Findings</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>The mean of BMI in groups with severity symptoms of moderate (27.57\u2009' 'kg/m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>), severe (29.70\u2009kg/m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>) and death persons ' '(28.13\u2009kg/m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>), was significantly higher than healthy (26.70\u2009' 'kg/m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>) and mild symptoms (26.57\u2009kg/m<jats:sup>2</jats:sup>) groups ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.001). The logistic regression shown, the fourth quartile of ' 'BMI was significantly associated with occurrence of COVID19, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% ' 'confidence intervals (CI): [OR: 1.81, (95% CI: 1.13– 2.89), p-for trend = 0.55]. There was no ' 'significant difference in the percentage of vitamin C, D3, Zinc, Iron and multivitamin ' 'supplements intake, between groups, in the past six\u2009months (<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> ' '= 0.11).</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title content-type="abstract-subheading">Originality/value</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>This study indicated the role of higher BMI in the occurrence and severity of ' 'COVID-19. Researches are not enough to recommend consumption of nutritional supplements for ' 'the prevention of COVID-19.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1108/nfs-11-2020-0421', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 13]], 'date-time': '2021-02-13T08:18:26Z', 'timestamp': 1613204306000}, 'page': '1017-1027', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 7, 'title': 'Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity ' 'of COVID-19? 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