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Association of dietary intake of polyphenols, lignans, and phytosterols with immune-stimulating microbiota and COVID-19 risk in a group of Polish men and women

Micek et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016
Aug 2023  
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Dietary analysis of 95 adults in Poland, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with higher intake of polyphenols, lignans, and phytosterols. Results were statistically significant for total phytosterols, secoisolariciresinol, β-sitosterol, matairesinol, and stigmasterol. Authors suggest that beneficial effects on gut microbiota and immune function may contribute to the lower risk.
Study covers quercetin, curcumin, and diet.
Micek et al., 3 Aug 2023, retrospective, Poland, peer-reviewed, survey, 8 authors, study period July 2020 - December 2020. Contact: agnieszka.micek@uj.edu.pl.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016', 'ISSN': ['2296-861X'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016', 'abstract': '<jats:sec><jats:title>Objectives</jats:title><jats:p>Devastating consequences of COVID-19 ' 'disease enhanced the role of promoting prevention-focused practices. Among targeted efforts, ' 'diet is regarded as one of the potential factors which can affect immune function and optimal ' 'nutrition is postulated as the method of augmentation of people’s viral resistance. As ' 'epidemiological evidence is scarce, the present study aimed to explore the association ' 'between dietary intake of total polyphenols, lignans and plant sterols and the abundance of ' 'immunomodulatory gut microbiota such as Enterococcus spp. and <jats:italic>Escherichia ' 'coli</jats:italic> and the risk of developing COVID-19 ' 'disease.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Demographic ' 'data, dietary habits, physical activity as well as the composition of body and gut microbiota ' 'were analyzed in a sample of 95 young healthy individuals. Dietary polyphenol, lignan and ' 'plant sterol intakes have been retrieved based on the amount of food consumed by the ' 'participants, the phytochemical content was assessed in laboratory analysis and using ' 'available databases.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>For ' 'all investigated polyphenols and phytosterols, except campesterol, every unit increase in the ' 'tertile of intake category was associated with a decrease in the odds of contracting ' 'COVID-19. The risk reduction ranged from several dozen percent to 70 %, depending on the ' 'individual plant-based chemical, and after controlling for basic covariates it was ' 'statistically significant for secoisolariciresinol (OR\u2009=\u20090.28, 95% CI: 0.11–0.61), ' 'total phytosterols (OR\u2009=\u20090.47, 95% CI: 0.22–0.95) and for stigmasterols (OR\u2009' '=\u20090.34, 95% CI: 0.14–0.72). We found an inverse association between increased ' 'β-sitosterol intake and phytosterols in total and the occurrence of <jats:italic>Escherichia ' 'coli</jats:italic> in stool samples outside reference values, with 72% (OR\u2009=\u20090.28, ' '95% CI: 0.08–0.86) and 66% (OR\u2009=\u20090.34, 95% CI: 0.10–1.08) reduced odds of abnormal ' 'level of bacteria for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of phytochemical ' 'consumption. Additionally, there was a trend of more frequent presence of Enterococcus spp. ' 'at relevant level in people with a higher intake of ' 'lariciresinol.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>The ' 'beneficial effects of polyphenols and phytosterols should be emphasized and these plant-based ' 'compounds should be regarded in the context of their utility as antiviral agents preventing ' 'influenza-type infections.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'alternative-id': ['10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016'], 'author': [ {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Micek', 'given': 'Agnieszka', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Bolesławska', 'given': 'Izabela', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Jagielski', 'given': 'Paweł', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Konopka', 'given': 'Kamil', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Waśkiewicz', 'given': 'Anna', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Witkowska', 'given': 'Anna Maria', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Przysławski', 'given': 'Juliusz', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Godos', 'given': 'Justyna', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Frontiers in Nutrition', 'container-title-short': 'Front. Nutr.', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': ['frontiersin.org']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 3]], 'date-time': '2023-08-03T12:12:00Z', 'timestamp': 1691064720000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 3]], 'date-time': '2023-08-03T12:12:04Z', 'timestamp': 1691064724000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 4]], 'date-time': '2023-08-04T04:27:03Z', 'timestamp': 1691123223844}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 3]]}, 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 3]], 'date-time': '2023-08-03T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1691020800000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016/full', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1965', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.3389', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 3]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 8, 3]]}, 'publisher': 'Frontiers Media SA', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.34172/hpp.2021.17', 'article-title': 'Nutritional approach for increasing public health during pandemic of ' 'COVID-19: a comprehensive review of antiviral nutrients and ' 'nutraceuticals', 'author': 'Ebrahimzadeh-Attari', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '119', 'journal-title': 'Health Promot Perspect', 'key': 'ref1', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/mnfr.201600930', 'article-title': 'A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake ' 'and cancer risk: level of evidence and limitations', 'author': 'Grosso', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '930', 'journal-title': 'Mol Nutr Food Res', 'key': 'ref2', 'volume': '61', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/nutrit/nuaa043', 'article-title': 'Dietary phytoestrogens and biomarkers of their intake in relation to ' 'cancer survival and recurrence: a comprehensive systematic review with ' 'meta-analysis', 'author': 'Micek', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '42', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Rev', 'key': 'ref3', 'volume': '79', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/aje/kww207', 'article-title': 'Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and mortality in prospective cohort ' 'studies: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis', 'author': 'Grosso', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1304', 'journal-title': 'Am J Epidemiol', 'key': 'ref4', 'volume': '185', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/antiox8060152', 'article-title': 'Dietary polyphenol intake, blood pressure, and hypertension: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies', 'author': 'Godos', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '152', 'journal-title': 'Antioxidants (Basel)', 'key': 'ref5', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13030728', 'article-title': 'Immunomodulatory effects of dietary polyphenols', 'author': 'Shakoor', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '728', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': 'ref6', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/antiox9121266', 'article-title': 'Phytosterols: nutritional health players in the management of obesity ' 'and its related disorders', 'author': 'Vezza', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '266', 'journal-title': 'Antioxidants (Basel)', 'key': 'ref7', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/v11010073', 'article-title': 'Characterization of the lipidomic profile of human coronavirus-infected ' 'cells: implications for lipid metabolism Remodeling upon coronavirus ' 'replication', 'author': 'Yan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '73', 'journal-title': 'Viruses', 'key': 'ref8', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2021.772700', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 risk appears to vary across different alcoholic beverages', 'author': 'Dai', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '772700', 'journal-title': 'Front Nutr', 'key': 'ref9', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2020.606398', 'article-title': 'Zinc, vitamin D and vitamin C: perspectives for COVID-19 with a focus ' 'on physical tissue barrier integrity', 'author': 'Name', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '606398', 'journal-title': 'Front Nutr', 'key': 'ref10', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu14020350', 'article-title': 'Associations of nutritional behavior and gut microbiota with the risk ' 'of COVID-19 in healthy young adults in Poland', 'author': 'Jagielski', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '350', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': 'ref11', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu10070865', 'article-title': 'Are total and individual dietary lignans related to cardiovascular ' 'disease and its risk factors in postmenopausal women? 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