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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Recovery, day 30 67% Improvement Relative Risk Recovery, day 15 57% Recovery, day 10 41% Recovery, day 5 24% Vitamin B12  Mahjoub et al.  EARLY TREATMENT  DB RCT Is early treatment with melatonin, zinc, vitamins A-E beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 164 patients in Tunisia (January - February 2023) Improved recovery with melatonin, zinc, vitamins A-E (not stat. sig., p=0.32) Mahjoub et al., Explore, June 2023 Favors vitamin B12 Favors control

Melatonin, vitamins and minerals supplements for the treatment of Covid-19 and Covid-like illness: a prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study.

Mahjoub et al., Explore, doi:10.1016/j.explore.2023.06.009
Jun 2023  
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34th treatment shown to reduce risk in February 2022
*, now known with p = 0.023 from 4 studies.
Lower risk for recovery.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 164 low-risk (no hospitalizations) patients in Tunisia, showing improved recovery with zinc, melatonin, and vitamins A-E. This study includes COVID-19 and COVID-like illness, with 49% of 128 patients receiving a PCR test being COVID-19 PCR+ at baseline.
25mg zinc, 2mg melatonin, 40mg vitamin C, 2.5mcg vitamin D, 10mcg provitamin A, 0.65mg vitamin B1, 0.7mg B2, 8mg B3, 3mg B5, 0.7mg B6, 25mcg B8, 100mcg B9, 1.25mcg B12, and 6mg vitamin E daily.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: combined treatments may contribute more to the effect seen.
Study covers melatonin, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin B9, and vitamin B12.
risk of no recovery, 66.7% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.32, treatment 0 of 82 (0.0%), control 1 of 82 (1.2%), NNT 82, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), day 30.
risk of no recovery, 57.1% lower, RR 0.43, p = 0.05, treatment 6 of 82 (7.3%), control 14 of 82 (17.1%), NNT 10, day 15.
risk of no recovery, 40.7% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.04, treatment 16 of 82 (19.5%), control 27 of 82 (32.9%), NNT 7.5, day 10.
risk of no recovery, 24.1% lower, RR 0.76, p = 0.04, treatment 44 of 82 (53.7%), control 58 of 82 (70.7%), NNT 5.9, day 5.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mahjoub et al., 20 Jun 2023, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Tunisia, peer-reviewed, 15 authors, study period 2 January, 2023 - 4 February, 2023, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (melatonin, zinc, vitamins A-E) - results of individual treatments may vary. Contact:,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
This PaperVitamin B12All
Melatonin, vitamins and minerals supplements for the treatment of Covid-19 and Covid-like illness: a prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study.
Lobna Mahjoub, MD Rym Youssef, MD Hajer Yaakoubi, Houda Ben Salah, MD Rahma Jaballah, MD Moez Mejri, MD Adel Sekma, MD Imen Trabelsi, Semir Nouira, MD Mariem Khrouf, MD Houda Ben Soltane, MD Zied Mezgar, MD Lotfi Boukadida, MD Asma Zorgati, MD Riadh Boukef
EXPLORE, doi:10.1016/j.explore.2023.06.009
Melatonin, vitamins and minerals supplements for the treatment of Covid-19 and Covid-like illness: a prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study.
Conclusion: Among non-hospitalized patients presenting to the emergency department with Covid-19 and Covid-like illness, daily doses of Melatonin, zinc and multivitamin compared with placebo, did significantly reduce the duration of symptoms accelerating its disappearance without developing complications or necessitating hospitalization or experiencing adverse events . The findings do support the use of this association for the treatment of COVID-19.
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Hasan, Atrakji, Mehuaiden, The Effect of Melatonin on Thrombosis, Sepsis and Mortality Rate in COVID-19 Patients, Int J Infect Dis IJID Off Publ Int Soc Infect Dis
Haskologlu, Erdag, Sayiner, Abacioglu, Sehirli, Melatonin and REGN-CoV2 combination as a vaccine adjuvant for Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, Mol Biol Rep
Huang, Cao, Liu, Shi, Wei, Inhibitory effect of melatonin on lung oxidative stress induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice, J Pineal Res
Kaur, Gupta, Saraf, Saraf, Zinc: The Metal of Life, Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf
Kumari, Dembra, Dembra, Bhawna, Gul et al., The Role of Vitamin C as Adjuvant Therapy in COVID-19, Cureus
Majidi, Rabbani, Gholami, Gholamalizadeh, Bourbour et al., The Effect of Vitamin C on Pathological Parameters and Survival Duration of Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Front Immunol
Margolin, Luchins, Margolin, Margolin, Lefkowitz, 20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment, J Evid-Based Integr Med
Martín-Blanco, Zamorano, Lizárraga, Molina-Moreno, The Impact of COVID-19 on the Sustainable Development Goals: Achievements and Expectations, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Miranda, Bouillon, Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol
Mj, Self-medication during Covid-19 pandemic: challenges and opportunities. Drugs Ther Perspect Ration Drug Sel Use
Murai, Fernandes, Sales, Pinto, Goessler et al., Effect of a Single High Dose of Vitamin D3 on Hospital Length of Stay in Patients With Moderate to Severe COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA
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Shaffer, Lots of long COVID treatment leads, but few are proven, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Shakoor, Feehan, Dhaheri, Ali, Platat et al., Immuneboosting role of vitamins D, C, E, zinc, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids: Could they help against COVID-19? Maturitas
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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